The invention belongs to the information technical field of construction industry ,As building information modeling (Building Information Model, BIM) creation and application to provide building information model data integration based on IFC standards and exchanging engines apparatus and methods.On the basis of BIM database depend on IFC standards and relational database,implements IFC format parsing BIM,non-IFC building information format conversion,BIM sub-model extraction and integration, BIM data storage, exchange and access control.The engine comprises IFC entities library, IFC file parser, IFC geometry converter,Project-IFC converter, BIM sub-model integrator, BIM sub-model extraction, data access controller,BIM data memory, BIM data extractor and the IFC file generator.The invention supports BIM data into a variety of formats, can be realized BIM data integration and exchange for the building life cycle stages or different applications.Using data batch processing techniques that effectively improves the efficiency of BIM data integration and exchange.
The Unitive-BIM system adopts BIM and through researching the differences and similarities between different finite element analysis (FEA) software information models to realize bidirectional data interface between structural analysis models and BIM models. The Unitive-BIM system realizes information transformation between different models and ensure the information consistency between different structural analysis software. The system also helps structure engineers to get rid of tedious and repetitive modeling work, which highly improves the efficiency of structural analysis process.
The BIM-FC system adopts BIM and through integrating the information produced in various business processes to BIM model to provide collaborative working platform for multi-participants, assisting BIM-based detail design, information management, coding, manufacturing and on-site assembling of precast elements. The system links detail design, manufacturing, materials management, logistics transportation and on-site construction and multi-participants collaboration to improve the efficiency of project management. Besides, the system proposes technical means and methods that rationally using BIM in business management processes and factorial construction of precast MEP segments, which makes the on-site assembly combination more reasonable and orderly and has good versatility.
The BIM-based Facility Intelligent Management system (BIM-FIM) introduces the international standards IFC, by setting up MEP information model (MEP-BIM) to achieve information sharing of MEP between the installation process and the operation and maintenance phase. It also supports integrated delivering of both physical equipments and a virtual MEP-BIM to the owner after installation. At the same time, being an information operation and maintenance management platform of MEP systems, it provides efficient operation and maintenance of means for operation and maintenance personnel to ensure that all MEP equipments and each subsystem are in safe. The BIM-FIM can be used for operation and maintenance management of MEP of various kind of projects.
According to the construction safety analysis situation and actual demands of management in China, by establishing a 4D construction safety information model based on IFC standards, the BIM-based 4D construction safety and conflict analysis system (BIM-based 4D Construction Safety and Conflict Analysis System, referred 4DBIM-COSCAS) was developed to achieve information sharing and integration management of architectural design, structural analysis and construction management, providing a safety inspection score during construction, time-dependent structure analysis and dynamic safety analysis of scaffold system, conflict analysis and management of construction schedule / resource / cost, and dynamic collision detection of structures and facilities. Shortly, it achieves the safety and conflict analysis within 4D dynamic construction management and process simulation. The system can be used for construction safety analysis and management of various projects, especially for large, complex projects.
Jianping Zhang, Fangqiang Yu, Ding Li and Zhenzhong Hu. Development and Implementation of an Industry Foundation Classes-Based Graphic Information Model for Virtual Construction[J]. Computer-Aided Civil and Infrastructure Engineering, 2014, 29: 60-74.
Virtual Construction (VC) applications encounter difficulty in sharing and exchanging information with one another due to the long periods of interoperability limitation. To address these issues, an Industrial Foundation Classes-based graphic information model (IFC-GIM) is developed according to the exchange requirement of VC, and using the representations of three models in the IFC schema and its extension by defining the dynamic property set and properties for animation. The three models include the physical object model, the construction information model, and the realistic model. An OpenGL-based VC platform is developed and applied to a 440-m-high building to implement the IFC-GIM. The results demonstrate that the proposed IFC-GIM lays the foundation for data sharing and exchange among VC systems and other IFC-compliant applications, which, in turn, significantly reduces the modeling effort for VC and increases the value of VC results. Furthermore, animation is applied to simulate construction activities by the VC platform in addition to color and transparency, enhancing realistic feelings in 4D applications.
Hu Zhenzhong, Zhang Jianping. BIM-and 4D-based integrated solution of analysis and management for conflicts and structural safety problems during construction: 2. Development and site trials[J]. Automation in Construction, 2011, 20(2): 167-180.
Conflict analysis, Structural safety analysis, Construction management, System development, Site trial
In order to achieve the information-based integrated construction management, e.g., time-dependent structures analysis, schedule/resource/cost conflict analysis as well as dynamic collision detection amongst site facilities and main structure elements, an integrated archetypal system named 4D-GCPSU 2009 is developed. Through 3 project examples, it is verified that the integrated solution is able to assist construction managers or owners in the aspects of analysis and management for process conflict and structural safety problems during construction. The application outcome of the system is accepted and praised by users as they considered that the system functions and analysis results provide significant reference support to the approval and revision of construction proposals, increase efficiency and safety concerning building construction. They also point out some difficulties in practice. As for those difficulties mentioned, a series of solutions plus further development orientation are put forth.
Zhang Jianping, Hu Zhenzhong. BIM-and 4D-based integrated solution of analysis and management for conflicts and structural safety problems during construction: 1. Principles and methodologies[J]. Automation in construction, 2011, 20(2): 155-166.
Integrated solution, Conflict analysis, Structural safety analysis, Building information model (BIM), Construction management
Strengthening construction safety analysis and management is of great social and economic significance. For a long time, however, there has been a lack of effective management tools in this important area that involves people's lives and property. Based on new developments in the Building Information Model (BIM), four-dimensional (4D) technology, time-dependent structural analysis, collision detection, and so on, a 4D structural information model is presented and established according to the overall solution of analysis and management for conflict and safety problems during construction. Based on this sub-BIM, the integration of dynamic safety analysis of time-dependent structures, conflict analysis and management of schedule/resource/cost, and dynamic collision detection of site facilities is studied, and theories and key technologies are discussed in detail. The results of this research provide a feasible theory and methodology for integrated applications of BIM. Furthermore, this study proposes a new approach for conflict and safety analysis during construction through the integration of construction simulation, 4D construction management, and safety analysis. The approach lays a foundation for the popularization of complicated theories and methodologies, and has theoretical significance and application prospects in meeting the needs of improving the safety level during construction.
The accurate spatial 3D models and corresponding coordinates of every key point are needed to determine the sizes, shapes, and locations of installation for all curtain wall elements in the process of production and construction. To solve the transition problems between architectural design and construction design of curtain wall system, four kinds of single-constrained computer-aided 3D modeling algorithm for spatial point-line models were discussed in detail. Then, a multi-constrained iterative 3D modeling process was proposed by considering coupling relationships amongst the various constraints. A 3D modeling system named T3-CW-CAD was developed and applied to the Shenzhen Airport Terminal 3. The application results showed that the presented-algorithm can meet the overall demand for automatically generating multi-layer 3D models according to spatial point-line model, along with sizes and other restraints amongst curtain wall elements, therefore playing a key role in guiding the production and construction of curtain wall system.
Ming Lu, Yang Zhang, Jianping Zhang, Zhenzhong Hu, Jiulin Li. Integration of four-dimensional computer-aided design modeling and three-dimensional animation of operations simulation for visualizing construction of the main stadium for the Beijing 2008 Olympic games[J]. Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering, 2009, 36(3): 473-479.
visualization, 3D modeling, computer aided design, animation, simulation, construction management, project management
In this paper, we give a state review of modeling methodologies for four-dimensional computer-aided design (4D CAD) and three-dimensional (3D) animation of operations simulation. We then present our efforts of integrating 4D CAD and 3D animation of operations simulation to facilitate the construction planning of the main stadium for the Beijing 2008 Olympic Games (nicknamed the “Bird’s Nest”). We propose a “zoom” interface between 4D CAD and 3D animation of operations simulation to enable a natural synergy of two separate, but organically linked research streams. For concept proving and application demonstration, we seamlessly integrated two computer systems resulting from previous in-house research to plan and visualize the construction of the “Bird’s Nest” in close collaboration with the main contractor. The integrated construction planning methodology is found instrumental in visually and intuitively conveying the master project schedule and detailed operations plan for construction of the “Bird’s Nest”.
Zhenzhong Hu , Xiangxiang Chen , Liang Wang , Fangqiang Yu , Xinpo Wang. A BIM-based Facility Intelligent Management System .Journal of information technology in Civil Engineering and Architecture. 2013 5(1)17-21(in Chinese)
MEP Engineering；Operation and Maintenance Period；Building Information Model（BIM）；Facility Management；Two-dimensional Code
Traditionally，operation and maintenance information for MEP mainly comes from completion data in the forms of drawings or documents.When the information is needed，it requires manual searches from such a huge amount of paper files.In order to realize the information transmission from design and construction phases to operation and maintenance period，effectively organization of such information by electronic means is the key issue to be resolved in current building lifecycle management.This can also enhance the information-aided maintenance.By introducing Building Information Model（BIM）and two-dimensional code，a BIM-based Facility Intelligent Management System（BIM-FIM 2012）is developed to realize the electronic integrated delivery of MEP，and to improve the maintenance management and emergency management of a building during its operation and maintenance period.The System also provides an effective way and platform to ensure the safe operations of all MEP systems.
Hengwei Wang , Zhenzhong Hu , Jiarui Lin , Jianping Zhang. Web-oriented BIM 3D viewing and information Management. Journal of information technology in Civil Engineering and Architecture. 2013,5(3)1-7(in Chinese).
Building Information Modeling（BIM）；WebGL；HTML5；B/S；Three.js
BIM Server provides a solution for BIM to support construction life cycle.Currently，the structure of BIM Server is C/S，but gradually B/S also shows its advantages.The release of the HTML5 standard brings the WebGL technology which supports hardware graphics acceleration in browser and is one of a series of revolutionary Web technologies.Thereby the foundation is laid for achieving Web-oriented BIM information management and 3D display of BIM model.In this paper，the model information scope and its expression of Web-oriented BIM is analyzed，and the corresponding information management technology and the BIM model display based on the Three.js，which is a WebGL framework，are studied.Then，a WebGL-based platform for 3D display and information management of BIM is also developed.Application shows that the graphics platform of the platform performs stable with nice rendering for large BIM.Meanwhile the platform provides rich feature supports for Web client by favorable interactive functions，showing a great application value.
Jianping Zhang ,Ding Li , Zhenzhong Hu. An Accurate Collision Detection Algorithm Integrating Spatial Decomposition and Spatial Occupancy and Its Applications in Construction Projects(in Chinese).
collision detection; spatial occupancy; spatial decomposition; integrated algorithm; building
Collision detection is an effective adjunct for three-dimensional CAD of construction projects. The
complex and large scale modern architectures bring demand for higher efficiency of collision detection algorithm.
Based on the two most widely applied pretreatments, i.e., spatial decomposition and spatial occupancy, an
integrated and efficient accurate collision detection algorithm is proposed. Through the testing and analysis of
project examples, the results show that the proposed algorithm is more efficient than other algorithms, and the
larger the model is, the more obvious its efficiency advantage is. For the actual demand of different construction
projects, the integrated algorithm is also improved and applied to actual projects to verify its effectiveness and
robustness. The practical applications show that the algorithm is applicable to the collision detection between
building structures and MEP (Mechanical, Electrical & Plumbing) engineering.
Yong Wang, Jianping Zhang, Zhenzhong Hu. Research on IFC-based Data Description Standards in Construction. Journal of information technology in Civil Engineering and Architecture.3 (4): 9-15(in Chinese).
Industry Foundation Classes, EXPRESS, Information Model, Information Exchange, Construction
The Industry Foundation Classes (IFC) developed by International Alliance for Interoperability(IAI) has been known as a common product model for data exchange and model sharing． In architecture design，entity types and property sets in IFCs are nearly enough to meet the needs． However，in the construction，entity types are insufficient for data description． Therefore，we analyses the demand for data description in construction in mainland China，and extend the IFC model．At last，we test the extension model by some real projects and give some suggestions for further research．
Zhenzhong Hu, Jianping Zhang,Xulei Zhang. 4D construction safety information model-based safety analysis approach for scaffold system during construction.Engineering Mechanics, 2010, 27 (12): 192-200(in Chinese).
4D technology, building information model, construction,scaffold system, safety analysis
Collapses of scaffold system account for a significant proportion in construction accidents so that safety analysis of scaffold system during construction received wide attention. However, the existing calculation methods have some deficiencies in 3D modeling and time-dependent description. This paper proposed a new safety analysis approach for scaffold system during construction by inducting 4D (4-Dimensional) technology and BIM (Building Information Model). The 4D Construction Safety Information Model, which provides complete information for dynamic connection between scaffold system and construction process information, is presented and established so that 3D models and structural analysis model of scaffold system can be generated rapidly and automatically, therefore the safety analysis process can be simplified greatly. This paper also demonstrates that
safety analysis of scaffold system based on the 4D Construction Safety Information Model is feasible and practical through an application example.
Zhenzhong Hu, Jianping Zhang. Construction collision detection for site entities based on 4D space-time model. Journal of Tsinghua University (Natural Science Edition), 2010, 50 (6): 820-825(in Chinese).
const ruction s ite, col lision d et ection, 4-D t echnology, space-t ime model
A 4-D space-t ime model and an improved construction collision detection algorithm were developed for site entities to improve construction safety management. The model uses the hierarchy bounding boxes algorithm and the 4-D technology and building information model(BIM) . The 4-D construction site layout management system accurately describes the 3-D shapes of site entities using the boundary representation (B-rep) method. The algorithm helps managers to dynamically analyze the construction process and avoid collisions between site entities and structural elements to improve the planning and deploym ent of site resources to meet the construction needs.
The faade of Shenzhen Airport Terminal 3 (T3) is a parametric shaping design based on freeform surface. Architect provides a single layer wireframe model for facade outer skin by listing related spacial point coordinates. During design development，it’s required for facade consultant to pretreat the raw data from architect in order to develop information of guidance for fabrication and construction，and then rebuild a multi-layer 3D model with post-treatment besides drawing output. Thus，based on the raw model and data，a CAD system integrated pretreatment / auto-modeling / post-treatment for curtain wall engineering of T3 ( T3-CW-CAD) is developed to increase the efficiency of drawing designing. The authors discuss the requirements，data structure and core algorithms of the system in detail.
Zhenzhong Hu,Chongli Wang,Guoxing Li, Building Information Model-based Application Framework for Lifecycle Management of Bridges. Highway and Transportation Research, 2010 (9) Supplement: 20-24(in Chinese).
bridge engineering,building information mode, llife-cycle management, 3D modeling,constructionm anagement, durability monitoring, life cycle cost analysis
First, a BIM-based framework for life cycle management of bridges was proposed.Then, according to the application framework layer within the entire framework, four application aspects and functional requirements were illustrated in detail, including BIM-based quick modeling, construction management, durability monitoring, and cost analysis and prediction. Some suggestions for BIM system development were proposed.
4D technology, building information model, conflict analysis, construction management
Based on previous research achievement —4D construction management system, in order to meet specific requirements of real projects and to enhance the construction conflict analysis abilities of the system, the authors firstly summarize conflict analysis needs for schedule management, resource management and cost management during construction by investigation. Then an improved analysis and management approach for construction conflict is proposed by inducting the 4D information model to solve corresponding technical problems , followed by a detailed description of the work flow of conflict analysis and management. The static alert mechanism according to current construction status and the dynamic early2 warning mechanism are illustrated based on prediction information by development trends during construction. Finally, examples of project applications show that the improved approach proposed can help project managers to grasp and analyze various construction conflicts, achieve purposes of conflict early warning and decision2making support.
HU Zhenzhong, ZHANG Jianping, DENG Ziyin. Construction process simulation and safety analysis based on building information model and 4D technology. Tsinghua Science and Technology, 2008, 13(S1): 266-272.
building information model (BIM), four-dimensional (4D) technology, structure analysis, construction simulation, industry foundation class
Time-dependent structure analysis theory has been proved to be more accurate and reliable compared to commonly used methods during construction. However, so far applications are limited to partial period and part of the structure because of immeasurable artificial intervention. Based on the building information model (BIM) and four-dimensional (4D) technology, this paper proposes an improves structure analysis method, which can generate structural geometry, resistance model, and loading conditions automatically by a close interlink of the schedule information, architectural model, and material properties. The method was applied to a safety analysis during a continuous and dynamic simulation of the entire construction process. The results show that the organic combination of the BIM, 4D technology, construction simulation, and safety analysis of time-dependent structures is feasible and practical. This research also lays a foundation for further researches on building lifecycle management by combining architectural design, structure analysis, and construction management.
The paper presents applications of simplified discrete-event simulation (SDESA), and 4D-GCPSU, to the National Stadium of the Beijing 2008 Olympics. Taking into account influential factors, e.g., resource, spatial condition, and the randomness of the construction process, the installation process of the steel-structure was simulated and optimized by using genetic algorithm (GA) optimization methodology. The operations simulation shortened the installation duration by 39 days (about 16% of the original total duration), guided the manufacturers to plan the construction processes, and provided specific suggestions on the entry time of the installation components, resulting in resource allocation optimization, resource saving, and construction efficiency improvement. Combining with the optimized schedule, the 4D visualization environment can discover time-space conflicts timely, and may assist project managers to reschedule the construction activities in tune with the site layout and resource allocation.
4D technology, time-dependent structure, safety analysis,during construction, 4D construction management
Time-dependent theory has been proven to be more accurate and reliable for safety analysis of structures during construction compared to the traditional static method based on probability. However, applications are restricted in partial periods and partial structures because of the immeasurable artificial intervention. By inducting 4D technology to safety analysis of time-dependent structures during construction, a visualized environment is provided, where the entire analysis data including structure models are accessible
according to the construction schedule. Thus, continuously and dynamically time-dependent analysis is achieved. This idea simplifies the process and enhances the efficiency of structure calculation. This paper demonstrates that the organic combination of 4D technology and time-dependent theory is feasible, proposes the 4D safety analysis model of time-dependent structures and the corresponding method for safety analysis, and presents a system for 4D-based construction management and safety analysis.
bridge, 4D2CAD, 4D construction management, bridge engineering, Qingdao Bay Bridge
In order to enhance Qingdao Bay Bridge project management level and efficiency , Tsinghua University , cooperation with the investors, developed 4D construction management system for Qingdao Bay Bridge by establishing the Qingdao Bay Bridge 4D information model and its information integration mechanism. The system implemented the construction visual simulation and 4D dynamic managements of construction progress, labor, material, machinery and construction quality by the mutual links of engineering model, construction schedule and resources. The experimental results show that 4D technology is supposed to raise information management and improve the efficiency of the Qingdao Bay Bridge project. The research presents a new information management method for bridge construction, and has a high practical value and broad prospects.
Jianping Zhang,Zhenzhong Hu,JianFeng Guo etc, Data mining-based intelligent decision support platform for engineering decision makings. Harbin Institute of Technology University, 2006 (9): 1518-1522(in Chinese).
data mining, decision support system, reasoning mechanism, engineering decisionm aking
In order to overcome the inherent shortcom ings in know ledge acquisition and applicability of traditional engineering decision support systems(EDSS), a new mechanism that integrates datamining(DM) technology with engineering decision support technologies is proposed and an intelligent decision support plat form for engineering decision makings named DM-EDSS is introduced. DM-EDSS aims to automatically extract useful know ledge (predictive models or rules) from a large amount of historical engineering data, and provide decision supports to solve new engineering problems by reasoning on the extracted know ledge. The results of case study show that the know ledge extracted by DM-EDSS can provide valuable suggestions for engineering decisionm akings, and the reasoning results are of acceptable precisions that can meet the requirements of engineering practices.
Xiao-Yang Zhang, Zhen-Zhong Hu and Heng-Wei Wang, Mohamad Kassem. An industry foundation classes Web-based approach and platform for bidirectional conversion of structural analysis models. Proceedings of 15th ICCCBE, Orlando, USA. Jun. 2014
Model Conversion, Structural Analysis, BIM, IFC, WebGL
Projects in the Architectural Engineering and Construction (AEC) industry involve several organizations and practitioners who require sharing very diverse set of information and models. Building Information Modeling (BIM) and open standards such as Industry Foundation Classes (IFC) have made substantial progress in improving the interoperability in recent years. However, inadequate interoperability is still inflicting an economic burden and is considered one of the main limiting factors for BIM adoption. This paper presents an IFC and Web-based approach and tool that enable a bidirectional conversion among structural analysis models. The approach consists of an IFC-based unified information model and a number of algorithms that help overcoming the differences between the data structures and representation logics of different structural analysis technologies. A web-based platform, that utilizes WebGL, was developed to enable the sharing and converting of different building models. The testing of the approach and the platform developed, in a live case study, demonstrated consistency in the conversion process and stability and rendering quality in the display of models over the Web browser.
Tianfeng He, Jiarui Lin, Zhenzhong Hu, Jianping Zhang, WeidongJia, Jing Su. BIM-Based Plan Modeling System at Preliminary Stage for Residential Real Estate Projects. Proceedings of 15th ICCCBE, Orlando, USA. Jun. 2014
Plan modeling, BIM, Performance analysis, Residential real estate
The preliminary stage of a residential real estate project is of great importance but also is known to be with poor efficiency. However, residential real estate project contains numerous built standard units such as dwelling units and floors. By introducing BIM, this research tapped the full potential of this advantage to improve the performance of the preliminary plan modeling in residential real estate projects. This research proposed a standard-unit-based modeling approach which contains 3 main steps: 1) standard unit management, 2) rapid plan modeling and 3) in-time estimation.By integrating functions such as intelligent standard unit boundary revision, sun analysis, multi-level and information-based model visualization,a prototype system was developed based on this approach, and wasapplied to a real estate project in Xian, China. The results indicate that this approach has the potential to improve the efficiency and quality of preliminary plan.
A framework of cloud-computing-based BIM service for building lifecycle. Proceedings of 15th ICCCBE, Orlando, USA. Jun. 2014
BIM; Distributed server; Virtual integration; Cloud computing; Building lifecycle;
With the amount increasing, theBIM (Building Information Modeling or Building Information Model) data exchange and sharing face a series ofchallenges includingintegration ofdisparate data models,fast information extraction anddata consistency maintenance. Since the existing BIM data storing and transferring method based on neutral files or a centralized database cannot meet theabove-mentioned requirements, a framework ofdistributedBIMservice on a private cloud platform was proposed. By this BIM service, multi-stage participants store relevant data on their own servers, which arevirtually integratedthrough a CC (cloud computing) platformto form a logically complete BIM. It supports participantsto establish, manageand transfer consistentBIM data efficiently withensuring ofdata privacy.Toachieve this BIM service, a BIM integration and service platform (BIMISP) based on IFC (Industry Foundation Classes) and CC was developed. Proved by experiments, the research achievements are useful for improving the efficiency and quality of information extraction and delivery, ensuring the safety and legality of data sharing during building lifecycle.
Jia-Rui Lin, Zhen-Zhong Hu, Jian-Ping Zhang. BIM oriented intelligent data mining and representation. Proceedings of 30th CIB W78 International Conference, Beijing, China, Oct. 2013
Data mining, Semantic analysis, Building Information Model (BIM), Natural Language Processing
(NLP), International Framework for Dictionaries (IFD)
Building Information Model (BIM) encompasses mass of data specified by Industry Foundation Classes (IFC)
from multiple fields during the whole lifecycle of the Architecture, Engineering and Construction (AEC) project.
Recently, a large international initiative is launched to provide extensive support that will facilitate the creation,
sharing and integration for BIM through all professions in the AEC industry, while few bend their mind to
intelligent BIM data mining, which will improve the value of BIM. As the Information becoming increasingly
rich and complicated, utilization of the data is getting harder, particularly for personnel without extensive
knowledge of IFC specifications.
This paper proposes a framework utilizing Natural Language Processing (NLP) and International Framework
for Dictionaries (IFD) to address the intelligent BIM data mining problem. First, user requirements depicted with
a sentence of natural language are processed for keywords extraction by NLP. Then, keywords will map to IFC
entities (or properties) through IFD-driven mapping mechanism, providing information for data retrieval. Finally,
the analyzed results of BIM data collected by previous research and application will be represented in accordance
with its format such as tables, charts, animations or combination of them. The framework provides an intelligent
data mining and multi-aspect data representation method for users without any special training, thus enhancing
the applicable value of BIM.
Practical application results in construction management illustrates that with semantic understanding of
his/her intention in natural language, user concerned data will be automatically retrieved, analyzed and
represented in a suitable form, which is of great benefit for corporations without requiring extremely
technological users, facilitating BIM application and enhancing the value of BIM.
Zhen-Zhong Hu, Xiang-Xiang Chen, Jian-Ping Zhang, etc. A BIM-based research framework for monitoring and management during operation and maintenance period. Proceedings of 14th ICCCBE, Moscow, Russia. Jun. 2012
research framework, monitoring, informatization management, BIM (Building Information Model), operation and maintenance
With the deepening research of BIM, BIM applications have been permeated into each phase of the
building life cycles. However, there is less research and engineering application during the operation
and maintenance of property facility management, i.e., lacking of specific feasible solutions.
Combining with actual major projects, addressing to three demands, respectly the durability
monitoring and safety evaluation, the information management of mechanical and electrical
equipment, and the simulation and optimization of airport business processes, how to apply BIM in
the operation and maintenance stage were discussed from following three aspects, namely the
supporting technologies, research contents and anticipated goals, so as to realize the comprehensive
monitoring, simulation, optimization and management of BIM and other modern information
technology. Among the said three application research frameworks proposed in this paper, the BIMbased
durability monitoring in the operation and maintenance period is expected to be applied in
large-sized bridge projects, and the other two have been put into the project approval and application
in an ongoing large airport construction project, which are expected to receive great social and
economic benefits and can be further researched and deeply applied in other similar projects.
Xiang-Xiang Chen, Zhi-Huai Li, Zhen-Zhong Hu and Zhao-Pu Shen. Key technical research and platform development of bridge management system. Proceedings of 4th Asia-Pacific Young Researchers & Graduate Symposium, Hong Kong, China. Dec. 2012
Bridge Management System (BMS), WebGIS, Degradation Model, Cost Model, Platform development
Efficient evaluation and maintenance management on bridge during the operation and maintenance period have
always been key issues which bridge maintenance department and municipal bridge management department are
very concerned about. With the development of computer technology, Bridge Management System (BMS) came
into being. However, current systems have some common problems, for instance, incomplete management
systems, backward and inaccurate analysis and evaluation models, weak database functions and imperfect
embodiments of human-computer interaction, etc. In order to solve these problems and aim at researching and
developing a generalized BMS, an approach to life cycle management for bridge, and the detailed workflow are
presented in this paper, followed by establishing a scientific analysis and evaluation model of a bridge. In this
manner, the core technological solutions for BMS based on B/S structure and GIS service are discussed.
According to the above solutions, a prototype system of comprehensive management and evaluation for bridges
is developed, giving a cautiously positive outlook for the new-generation BMS.
Jian-Ping Zhang, Jia-Rui Lin, Zhen-Zhong Hu, etc. Research on IDM-based BIM process information exchange technology. Proceedings of 14th ICCCBE, Moscow, Russia. Jun. 2012
IDM, IFC, BIM, process information exchange, MVD (Model View Definition)
IFC (Industry Foundation Classes) laid the foundation for interoperability with different applications. However, the IFC lacked the specifications for the process, such as where and when the information was created, edited, and exchanged. Determining what and when to share is difficult. Thus, IDM (Information Delivery Manual) was introduced to capture the business process while providing detailed user-defined specifications on the information that need to be exchanged at particular points within a project. However, the development of IDM needs the widespread support of participants who have high professionalism. Thus, the development of IDM lasts long, and the model view of the exchange requirement is difficult to modify, which obstructs BIM (Building Information Modeling) information sharing. In this paper, the technical framework of the BIM process information exchange was proposed based on the relationships among IDM, IFC, and IFD (International Framework for Dictionaries). According to the framework, the basic method for BIM process information exchange, which is composed of process modelling and exchange requirement extraction based on IDM, model view auto-generation depending on natural specification of exchange requirement, exchanging data by the requirement view in a linear sequence, was established. The exchange requirement model view auto-generation application was also developed. Actual practice in the 4D (4-Dimensional) construction management system of the information specified by the exchange requirement view was presented. Application results illustrate that the framework and the method for BIM process information exchange is effective, and helps in the safe, accurate, and highly efficient exchange, sharing, and integration of data.
Qiang Liu, Jian-Ping Zhang, Ding Li, Zhen-Zhong Hu. Research on building information modeling and model transformation technology based on the IFC. Proceedings of 14th ICCCBE, Moscow, Russia. Jun. 2012
Industry Foundation Classes (IFC), Building Information Modeling (BIM), Model transformation
This paper focuses on several key technologies in Building Information Modeling (BIM) to provide
the technical route and method for building a high-quality BIM. The paper discusses the direct use of
the Industry Foundation Classes (IFC) data structure in a building information modeling system to
minimize data loss theoretically. This work also addresses the efficiency problem, which is one of the
biggest obstacles in the application of IFC. In this research, the IFC information expression, including
geometry, material definitions, and construction properties, among others, is studied, and a modeling
system based on IFC is developed to build an IFC-represented model. Engineering information, such
as physical quantity, material, schedule, cost, safety, and quality, as well as extensible properties, has
also been added or edited into the previously established model. The paper presents several IFC
model transformation technologies, including model reconstruction of IFC data, solid-to-surface
model conversion, mesh simplification for surface model, and repeating unit simplification based on
mapping. Application of these technologies could improve system efficiency and IFC data
transmission efficiency to a certain extent.
structural safety, building information model, 4D, construction, safety analysis
Building Information Model (BIM) is a full-fledged digital framework that models building components and their relationships. As a subset module of BIM, a sub-BIM focuses on a certain field or objective and provides all related building information. Aiming at the unsolved problems of establishing the complete BIM at the beginning of a project, this paper presents a feasible and necessary method for the implementation of BIM applications by combining various sub-BIMs. The research took the National Stadium of 2008 Olympic Game as a case study in which an Industry Foundation Class (IFC) -based sub-BIM, 4D Structural Information Model was developed by combining three smaller sub-BIMs to support 4D structural safety analysis during construction, so that time-dependent structural analysis could be carried out precisely following the construction activities. The case study shows that the proposed method is rational and feasible, and it is an integrated and intelligent method for building lifecycle management.
LIANG Xiong, LU Ming, ZHANG Jianping, HU Zhenzhong. A case study of dynamic construction site facilities modeling in a 4D environment. Proceedings of 12th ICCCBE & 2008 INCiTE, Beijing, China. Oct. 2008
Dynamic Site Layout, Construction Sites, Construction Management, Construction Planning, 4D Construction Management
This paper presents a dynamic construction site layout modeling technique developed to follow an open architecture in a four dimensional (4D) environment. We intend to address the limitations of established two dimensional (2D) site layout planning approaches by processing information of site facilities in three dimensions (3D) and alleviate the difficulties of creating new types of facilities as experienced by existing 3D/4D-based methods. The new modeling technique enables creation and insertion of new types of fa-cilities to the site layout model, driven by the diverse nature of construction sites. In addition, the new tech-nique also seamlessly adds location and progress data in a site layout model. Its basic architecture and components, including database design, facility components and 4D environments are described. In order to demonstrate its advantages, a case study is presented on how to apply the proposed modeling method at a high-rise building site.
Zhen-Zhong Hu, Jian-Ping Zhang, Ming Lu, etc. Simulation and optimization of prefabricated steel-structure installation operations. Proceedings of 1st International Construction Specialty Conference, Calgary, Alberta, Canada. 2006
Construction Plan, Simulation, Optimization, Genetic Algorithm
This research presents a university-industry joint research endeavor in applying simulation modeling combined with genetic optimization to the prefabricated steel-structure installation operations in an ongoing stadium construction project in Beijing. The simulation platform of SDESA (simplified discrete-event simulation approach) resulting from the latest research was utilized to establish the construction process model. By simulating, analyzing and optimizing this process model, valuable and practical recommendations are provided to the contractor and the steel prefabricator, allowing them to reduce the resource utilization, improve the construction efficiency and shorten the project period.
【Domestic conference papers】
Zhenzhong Hu , Jianping Zhang. 4D construction safety analysis based on sub-BIMs and a case study of the National Stadium. Proceedings of the Sixth National Civil Engineering Forum for Graduate Students. Beijing , China.2008 (Best awarded paper, Outstanding Paper Encourage Award of The Eighth China Civil Engineering Society)(in Chinese)
building information model, 4D technology, construction process, safety analysis
To address the issues of constraining construction safety management caused by relative independence of architectural design, structural analysis and construction management, the research introduced the concept of building information model (BIM), and 4D construction management to construction safety analysis applications. To solve the problems of establishing the complete BIM at the beginning of a project, the paper presents a new concept of sub-BIM by focusing on specific domain or subjective, extracting kernel information. The paper also describes four sub-BIMs, namely Basic Information Model, 4D Information model, Structural Information Model and 4D Construction Safety Information Model. The research took the National Stadium as a case study that 4D Construction Safety Information Model was established to support 4D construction safety analysis. The case demonstrates that sub-BIMs are feasible and rational for reducing the workload of construction management and structure modeling, supporting the effective implementation of construction safety analysis.
Jianping Zhang , Zhenzhong Hu. 4D and BIM-based construction safety analysis. The Tenth National Innovative Application of Information Technology in construction, Guilin , China.2007(in Chinese)
4D information model, Time-dependent structure, Safety analysis, Construction
The safety problem of building during construction is attached importance to both people and government due to frequently accidents. As a result, seeking after more scientific and accurate methods of safety analysis during construction has become an emergent research area. By inducting 4D-CAD and building information modeling technologies, a safety analysis model and system framework were proposed in this paper based on the summarization of current analysis methods. Through 4D information model corresponding to time-dependent connotation, the process of analysis is prominently simplified and the goal of exchange and communion of information during design period and construction period is achieved together with 4D visualized simulation.
Jianping Zhang , Zhenzhong Hu , Jianfeng Guo. Construction Technology Development Problems and Solutions in China. Proceedings of the ninth National Innovative Application of Information Technology in construction, Weihai , China.2006(Special report, excellent paper)(in Chinese)
Construction industry, Science and technologies development, Difficulties and countermeasures
The construction industry is one of the foundational industries in China. However, compared with some advanced countries, it is still a labor intensive industry and of low productivity. This paper raises the difficulties of science and technologies development, implementation technology and industrialization technology in building industry based on the current status of construction in China. Then experiences from advanced countries are used for reference and some countermeasures are presented.
Jianping Zhang , Zhenzhong Hu. Framework of Information management system for construction enterprise. Proceedings of the second International Digital City Construction Technology Symposium, Suzhou, China.2006 (keynote)(in Chinese)
Construction enterprise, Management mode, Information management system, Framework
The framework of an information management system for construction enterprise integrated with the advanced management mode and potential information technologies has been established, based on extensive field investigations and analysis for the organization system, management mode, work flow and information management status of construction enterprises. The framework can be used to guide the design and implementation of information management system for construction enterprise. This study should also provide some references to make relative policies for promoting the application of information technology in the construction industry in China.
Jianping Zhang , Jianfeng Guo , Zhenzhong Hu. Current Status and Development of Construction Technology Innovation Abroad. Proceedings of the Eighth National information technology and multi-media Aided Engineering Symposium in construction, Chengde , China.2005(in Chinese)
The Construction Industry, Science and technologies, Current status, Development trend
The construction industry is one of the foundational industries in China. However, compared with some advanced countries, it is still a labor intensive industry and of low productivity. In order to meet the challenges brought by information technologies and knowledge-based economy, and promote the competition ability of China’s construction industry, it is of crucial importance to survey the current status and development trends of science and technologies in the global construction industry.
Zhenzhong Hu. Research of BIM-based Safety Analysis and Management Technologies within Building Lifecycle. Postdoctoral Research Report, Shenzhen: Graduate School at Shenzhen, Tsinghua University. 2011(in Chinese)
building lifecycle management (BLM), building information model (BIM), collaborative design, construction safety, durability monitoring, operating management, industrial foundation classes (IFC)
Though the construction industry is developing rapidly today, low efficiency and labor waste have become increasingly obvious. In order to co-ordinate the huge amounts of information and diverse application requirements emerged during every stage of the building lifecycle, it is of great social and economic significance to introduce the concept of Building Information Model, BIM for short, to Building Lifecycle Management, BLM for short. Although in recent years, there have been some successful BIM applications of many engineering projects with some delightful achievements, BIM technology, as well as the full realization of BLM is still long way to go, which also means that many key technologies involved need a thorough study and some major breakthroughs.
By introducing BIM technology and for safety analysis and management within building lifecycle, this study proposed a BIM-based BLM framework, as well as IFC (Industrial Foundation Classes) descriptions of several BIMs according to the IFC schema. Then based on the newly developments in collision detection algorithms, time-dependent structural analysis, durability monitoring, discrete event simulation algorithm and so on, four typical safety analysis and management applications within different stages of the building lifecycle are discussed in detail, namely 1) the establishment and sharing of BIM; 2) safety-oriented collaborative design; 3) safety analysis and management during construction; and 4) monitoring and management during operation and maintenance period. Also, all the theories, methodologies and technologies involved, as well as some on-going researches and future directions are discussed. Finally, the feasibility and effectiveness are verified by some real projects.
The results show that information generated during the building lifecycle can be unifiedly managed by the help of BIM. This provides new management ideas and tools for safety issues within building lifecycle, to solve problems of information sharing and delivering, such as information island and information fault. The meaningful and promising results may improve safety performance within building lifecycle and accelerate the informalization of construction industry, especially in the aspects of ensuring the consistency of safety information and improving the efficiency of safety information use.
building information model (BIM), four dimension management (4D management), structure safety, conflict analysis, construction
In view of the current situation, for the purpose of information sharing and reuse between design and construction phases within building lifecycle, based on newly developments in Building Information Model (BIM), 4D technology, time-dependent structure analysis, construction simulation, collision detection and so on, the concept of sub-Building Information Model (sub-BIM) is proposed and the 4D Construction Safety Information Model is described and established according to the overall solution of analysis and management for conflict and safety problems during construction. Based on this sub-BIM, the integration of dynamic safety analysis of time-dependent structure and scaffold system, conflict analysis and management of schedule/resources/ cost, and collision detection of site facilities is studied. Theories and key technologies for the integration mechanism are detailed discussed. Then a BIM-and-4D-based analysis and management system for conflict and safety problems during construction named 4D-GCPSU 2009 is developed. By real project-applications, the feasibility and effectiveness of the system are verified to be a new tool for construction management, providing new safety analysis approaches.
The achievements of this research have indicated that through the establishment of the 4D Construction Safety Information Model by inducting BIM and 4D technology, information sharing and integrated management among three areas, i.e., architectural design, structural analysis and construction can be implemented. This also provides a feasible theory and methodology for the establishment and integrated applications of BIM. Furthermore, this study proposes a new approach for conflict and safety analysis during construction by integration of construction simulation, 4D construction management and safety analysis. The approach lays a foundation for the popularization of the complicated theories and methodologies. It also has important theoretical significance and wide application prospect in meeting the needs of safe construction, changing the backward situation and improving the safety level during construction.
the National Stadium, 4D management, Construction Optimization, Virtual Construction
The National Stadium is the main stadium of the 2008 Olympic Games in Beijing. The Beijing Chengjian Corporation, which is the chief contractor, is in charge of organizing and implementing the project. It is Crucial to complete the construction efficiently and high-qualitatively since The National Stadium has complex structure, large construct scale, high difficulty in construction and pressure time. To ensure that the project be under construction efficiently and with high quality, it is important to manage the project with high technology and optimize the construction method.
Our researches focus on the application of the 4D-GCPSU 2005 in the National Stadium project. We set up the exactitude 3D-Model of its steel structure in CATIA and convert the model to DWG data files, which can be read by AutoCAD and used by 4D-GCPSU 2005. By using the technology of 4D-CAD we also implement animation of virtual construction and the 4D-display. Also we set up the construction process model in SDESA. By simulating the construction process, comparing different construction methods and optimizing the construction method, we can give out valuable and quantitative ideas for construction managers. The result is satisfying.
This research combines advanced computer technology with the construction of the National Stadium to achieve the aims of reducing construction resources, improving construction efficiency and shortening the duration of the project.