本发明属于建筑业信息技术领域，为建筑信息模型(Building Information Model，BIM)的创建和应用，提供一种基于IFC标准的建筑信息模型数据集成与交换引擎装置和方法。以基于IFC标准和关系型数据库建立的BIM数据库为基础，实现IFC格式BIM解析，非IFC格式建筑信息转化，BIM子模型的提取和集成，BIM数据存储、交换以及访问控制，该引擎装置包括IFC实体库、IFC文件解析器、IFC几何模型转化器、Project-IFC转化器、BIM子模型集成器、BIM子模型提取器、数据访问控制器、BIM数据存储器、BIM数据提取器以及IFC文件生成器等组件。本发明支持多种格式的BIM数据转化，可实现面向建筑生命期各阶段或不同应用的BIM数据集成与交换。采用数据批量处理技术，有效提高了BIM数据集成与交换的效率。
基于建筑信息模型的建筑工程4D施工安全与冲突分析系统（BIM-based 4D Construction Safety and Conflict Analysis System，简称4DBIM-COSCAS）结合我国建筑施工安全分析与管理的实际需求，通过建立基于IFC标准的4D施工安全信息模型，实现建筑设计、结构分析和施工管理的信息共享与集成管理，提供了施工过程安全检查评分、施工过程时变结构和支撑体系的动态安全分析、施工进度/资源/成本费用的冲突分析与管理以及场地设施动态碰撞检测等功能，在4D动态施工管理和过程模拟中实现了施工安全与冲突分析。系统可用于各种建筑工程的施工安全分析和管理，尤其适用于大型、复杂工程。
Zhen-Zhong Hu, Shuang Yuan, Claudio Benghi, Jian-Ping Zhang, Xiao-Yang Zhang, Ding Li, Mohamad Kassem. Geometric optimization of building information models in MEP projects:Algorithms and techniques for improving storage, transmission and display[J]. Automation in Construction. 2019, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.autcon.2019.102941
Mechanical, Electrical and Plumbing (MEP) models are generally characterized by information redundancy and a high density of irregularly shaped components. Consequently, they require large storage spaces and are not conducive for interchange purposes. Geometric optimization of MEP models can play a significant role in facilitating model exchange and handover by increasing storage, transmission and display efficiency. To date, the body of knowledge on such geometric optimization, unfortunately, is still very narrow.
This paper presents and tests a solution for the optimization of storage, transmission, and display of MEP models. Storage optimization was achieved through a mapping-based model description method and a novel Quadric-Error-Metric (QEM) mesh simplification algorithm, reducing required storage while maintaining the contour of components. For transmission optimization, a normal vector compression algorithm and a fixed-dictionary specific compression algorithm were proposed to achieve efficient compression of data thus, fulfilling the need for cross-platform interchange. Display optimization was obtained through a normal vector regeneration algorithm for clustering triangle meshes to improve 3D display effects.
The evaluation of the solution, performed for each individual component separately as well as for an entire solution, proved successful. Volume of storage data was reduced by 40% to 50% through mesh simplification. Data transmission volume was reduced by more than 80% for components with complicated geometry without affecting the topology of the components. Finally, the display process was capable of decreasing the number of triangles and delivering very good quality of displayed models.
Yu-Wei Zhou, Zhen-Zhong Hu, Jia-Rui Lin, Jian-Ping Zhang. A Review on 3D Spatial Data Analytics for Building Information Models[J]. Archives of Computational Methods in Engineering. 2019, https://doi.org/10.1007/s11831-019-09356-6
Spatial database, Spatial analysis, Building information model, Interoperability Model checking, Data retrieval, Spatio-semantic analysis
Except for various properties, accurate and intuitive 3D representations of building elements and spaces are embedded in Building Information Models (BIMs). Thus, better understanding of spatial features of building elements and spaces is possible, which brings new opportunity in code compliance checking, indoor navigation, visualization, etc. With large amount of fine-grained 3D spatial data collected quickly and continuously, there is an urgent need for new methods to overcome problems like improper spatial expression, insufficient mining and utilization of information that exist in traditional methods. This research reviews state-of-the-art of related research and provides a summary of achievements and challenges in this area. Then, a framework consists of management, analysis, and application of 3D spatial data of BIM and a detailed discussion of each part are proposed, which would give the readers an overview of relevant methods, technologies, and tools. Moreover, potential research directions and open issues for future work are also discussed. The paper enables researchers to get a comprehensive understanding of 3D spatial data analytics of BIM as well as suggestions for future work, and thus makes a solid contribution in this area.
evacuation; path planning; neural network; building information modeling; artificial intelligence
Evacuation path planning is of significant importance to safely and efficiently evacuate occupants inside public buildings. Current computer simulation methods carry out evacuation analysis and then provide emergency education and management with a vivid virtual environment. However, efficient evacuation path planning approaches for evacuation guidance still meet the challenges of generating the analysis models, and lacking of real-time analysis methods under dynamic circumstances. In this study, a dynamic path planning approach based on neural networks is proposed for evacuation planning in large public buildings. First, an automatic process to develop the evacuation analysis model with simplified but sufficient information is presented. Then a path generation algorithm is proposed, together with an evaluation process, to generate a number of training sets for policy neural networks. When the primary policy neural network is preliminarily trained, it falls into a self-learning iteration process. Finally, the approach embeds a dynamic algorithm to simulate the mutual influences among all occupants in the building. The neural network was trained according to a real large public building and then the approach managed to provide rapid and feasible evacuation guidance for both occupants to escape in multiple scenarios and managers to design the evacuation strategy. Test results showed that the proposed approach runs 8-10 times faster than existing software and traditional search algorithms.
In mechanical, electrical, and plumbing (MEP) systems, logic chains refer to the upstream and downstream connections between MEP components. Generating the logic chains of MEP systems can improve the efficiency of facility management (FM) activities, such as locating components and retrieving relevant maintenance information for prompt failure detection or for emergency responses. However, due to the amount of equipment and components in commercial MEP systems, manually creating such logic chains is tedious and fallible work. This paper proposes an approach to generate the logic chains of MEP systems using building information models (BIMs) semi-automatically. The approach consists of three steps: (1) the parametric and nonparametric spatial topological analysis within MEP models to generate a connection table, (2) the transformation of MEP systems and custom information requirements to generate the pre-defined and user-defined identification rules, and (3) the logic chain completion of MEP model based on the graph data structure. The approach was applied to a real-world project, which substantiated that the approach was able to generate logic chains of 15 MEP systems with an average accuracy of over 80%.
Structural safety; Closed-loop management; Information modeling; Data integration; Time-dependent structure
Structural safety during construction is vital to engineering success of large scale bridges. However, difficulties in time-dependent structural modeling and data fragmentation of different engineering and management systems remain unresolved, hindering the plan, do, check, and adjust (PDCA) loop for structural safety management during bridge construction. In this paper, an integrated framework for closed-loop management of structural safety based on multisource data integration is presented. The proposed framework consists of a bridge safety information model (BrSIM), algorithms for data integration and semi-automatic time-dependent structural model generation, and methods for structural safety warning and assessment. The proposed BrSIM and algorithms integrate data related to 3D products, schedule, structural simulation and monitoring from various engineering systems, which covers the main data for structural safety management during construction. Meanwhile, automatic calculation and generation of static loads and constraints of a structural model based on 3D product information and monitoring data are also considered. Demonstration in the construction of a longspan bridge shows that with the proposed framework, it is possible to visualize the construction process, generate time-dependent structural models and simulate, monitor and assess the structural safety dynamically. Thus, the structural safety management loop is automated and fully closed. Furthermore, by tracking and simulating the changes of structural performance over time, and comparing the difference between simulation results and monitoring data, earlier detection and better evaluation of potential structural risks are achieved. Moreover, efficiency of information modeling and sharing is improved and effective management and decision-making are achieved with the proposed approach.
Yi Zhou, Zhen-Zhong Hu, Wei-Zhong Zhang. Development and Application of an Industry Foundation Classes-Based Metro Protection Information Model[J]. Mathematical Problems in Engineering, vol. 2018, Article ID 1820631, 20 pages, 2018. https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/1820631.
Metro protection is the task of evaluating, detecting, and controlling the potential threats presented by external projects to metro structures. To solve the problems encountered in metro protection work, including the isolation of models, difficulties in information extraction, and lack of data processing methods, this study introduced a building information model/modeling (BIM) technology and proposed a metro protection information model (the MPIM) based on the Industry Foundation Classes (IFC) international data standard and its expansion mechanism. According to the information exchange requirements for metro
protection, the MPIM defines new customized IFC entities, property sets, and enumeration types to express the models in the metro protection domain. Then the conversion methods of the MPIM and other model formats and the information extraction and application technologies are studied. A metro protection system was developed to implement the MPIM-based model integration and provide assist in preliminary evaluation of external projects via information-rich the MPIM. A trial of the system from Guangzhou Metro’s Modiesha Station to Xingangdong Station indicated that the utilization of the MPIM in metro protection workflow could improve working efficiency and save time obviously; management staff claimed that the application of the system saved more than 40% of the time for project evaluation.
A.U.Weerasuriya, Z.Z.Hu, X.L.Zhang, K.T.Tse, S.Li, P.W.Chan. New inflow boundary conditions for modeling twisted wind profiles in CFD simulation for evaluating the pedestrian-level wind field near an isolated building[J]. Building and Environment. 2018, 132: 303-318.
CFDIsolated buildingPedestrian level wind environmentTwisted wind profilesWind tunnel test
The hilly topography of Hong Kong influences oncoming winds and gradually changes their wind directions along the profiles' height. The vertical variation in wind directions, or the twist effect, significantly influences the Pedestrian Level Wind (PLW) field in urban areas of Hong Kong, thus it is a topic demanding systematic investigations. In this study, a new set of inflow boundary conditions are proposed to model twisted wind flows in Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) simulations. The new inflow boundary condition derived based on the horizontal homogeneous assumption, specifies a vertical profile of lateral wind speeds at the inlet boundary to sustain the twist effect in the empty computational domain. The proposed boundary conditions are used to simulate the PLW fields near three isolated buildings with different Height-to-Width ratio using two CFD codes; OpenFOAM, and FLUENT. The results reveal that OpenFOAM is more reliable in simulating PLW fields in twisted wind flows using the new set of boundary conditions. The three-dimensional flow field provided by the OpenFOAM simulation shows sparse streamlines downstream the buildings, indicating lack of organized eddies in the building far wake, which negatively affects the dispersion of air pollutants in twisted winds.
MEP, BIM, As-built, Operation and maintenance, Facility management
Incomplete building information in delivery and the lack of compatible tools for Operation and Maintenance (O & M) have hindered the development of the intelligent management of Mechanical, Electrical and Plumbing (MEP) systems. In fact, the information related to the O & M management of the MEP system conventionally comes from the completion documents in the forms of hard copies or unstructured digital files, making it hard to search for useful information in the “sea” of documents and drawings. Therefore, digitalization of information is an urgent task to facilitate the intelligent management of the MEP system. As a project deliverable, the as-built information model shall not only contain geometrical information and necessary construction-related data, but also built-in information useful for the intelligent O & M management. In the present study, based on the Building Information Modeling/Model (BIM) technology, a set of solutions including the automatic establishment of the logic chain for MEP systems, an equipment grouping and labeling scheme and an algorithm to transform BIM information to GIS map model, is proposed to digitalize and integrate the MEP-related information into the as-built model. Subsequently, a cross-platform O & M management system is developed using the MEP-related information in the as-built model to run routine O & M tasks and to effectively response to MEP-related emergencies. The developed system is applied to aid the O & M management of MEP engineering in a real project, showing that the developed system facilitates the intelligent O & M management and guarantees the security of the MEP system and its subsystems.
data mining, building information modeling, Operation and maintenance, cluster analysis, pattern analysis, outlier detection
Huge amounts of data are generated daily during the operation and maintenance (O&M) phase of buildings. These accumulated data have the potential to provide deep information that can help improve facility management. Building Information Model/Modeling (BIM) technology has proven potential in O&M management in some studies, making it possible to store massive data. However, the complex and non-intuitive data records, as well as inaccurate manual inputs, raise difficulties in making full use of information in current O&M activities. This paper aims to address these problems by proposing a BIM-based Data Mining (DM) approach for extracting meaningful laws and patterns, as well as detecting improper records. In this approach, the BIM database is first transformed into a data warehouse. After that, three DM methods are combined to find useful information from the BIM. Specifically, the cluster analysis can find relationships of similarity among records, the outlier detection detects manually input improper data and keeps the database fresh, and the improved pattern mining algorithm finds deeper logic links among records. Particular emphasis is put on introducing the algorithms and how they should be used by building managers. Hence, the value of BIM is increased based on rules, extracted from data of O&M phase that appear irregular and disordered. Validated by an integrated on-site practice in an airport terminal, the proposed DM methods are helpful in prediction, early warning, and decision making, leading to the improvements of resource usage and maintenance efficiency during the O&M phase.
S.W. Li, Z.Z. Hu, P.W. Chan, Gang Hu. A study on the profile of the turbulence length scale in the near-neutral atmospheric boundary for sea (homogeneous) and hilly land (inhomogeneous) fetches[J]. Journal of Wind Engineering & Industrial Aerodynamics, 2017, 168: 200-210.
Field measurement, Near-neutral stability, Spatial correlations, Turbulent length scale
In the present study, the spatial correlation coefficients of wind speeds at different heights in the atmospheric boundary layer under near-neutral conditions are calculated based on field measurements taken by Doppler SODARs. To guarantee near-neutral stability, only measurements associated with relatively high wind strength (wind speeds in the lower boundary layer >10m=s) are used in the calculation. The correlation coefficients calculated from measured data are fitted to those predicted by models to derive a vertical integral length scale. Through investigating the vertical variations of the vertical integral length scale, which is essentially the mixing length, it has been found that (a) the mixing length increases linearly with heights below 70m, which agrees with the predictions from traditional models; (b) traditional models are applicable for predicting the vertical variation of mixing lengths in a near homogeneous sea-fetch wind flow; and (c) mean wind flow stretches the energy-containing eddy to produce larger mixing lengths, and this stretching effect is more prominent in a land-fetch flow.
Data ownership and privacy, Cross-party collaboration, Interoperability, Multi-server, Private cloud
Interoperability remains the key problem in multi-discipline collaboration based on building information modeling (BIM). Although various methods have been proposed to solve the technical issues of interoperability, such as data sharing and data consistency; organizational issues, including data ownership and data privacy, remain unresolved to date. These organizational issues prevent different stakeholders from sharing their data due to concerns regarding losing control of the data. This study proposes a multi-server information-sharing approach on a private cloud after analyzing the requirements for cross-party collaboration to address the aforementioned issues and prepare for massive data handling in the near future. This approach adopts a global controller to track the location, ownership and privacy of the data, which are stored in different servers that are controlled by different parties. Furthermore, data consistency conventions, parallel sub-model extraction, and sub-model integration with model verification are investigated in depth to support information sharing in a distributed environment and to maintain data consistency. Thus, with this approach, the ownership and privacy of the data can be controlled by its owner while still enabling certain required data to be shared with other parties. Application of the multi-server approach for information interoperability and cross-party collaboration is illustrated using a real construction project of an airport terminal. Validation shows that the proposed approach is feasible for maintaining the ownership and privacy of the data while supporting cross-party data sharing and collaboration at the same time, thus avoiding possible legal problems regarding data copyrights or other legal issues.
Zhen-Zhong Hu, Jian-Ping Zhang, Fang-Qiang Yu, Pei-Long Tian, Xue-Song Xiang. Construction and facility management of large MEP projects using a multi-Scale building information model[J]. Advances in Engineering Software. 2016, 100: 215-230.
Construction management; Facility management; MEP; BIM; Multi-scale
Several challenges have been found in the current applications of building information modelling/model (BIM) technology in large-scale mechanical, electrical and plumbing (MEP) projects, such as the huge modelling workloads of MEP models and details, untapped potential in supporting cooperative construction management with multiple participants and insufficient functions for intelligent facility management. This paper proposes a multi-scale solution to address the insufficiencies of the current applications in the construction and facility management of MEP projects. Particularly, a practical multi-scale BIM consisting of several macro-, micro- and schematic-scale information models is described in detail with the required information of the MEP components according to the schema of industrial foundation classes. Based on this model, the paper presents a BIM-based construction management system to provide virtual construction scenes with appropriate scales for various participants to communicate and cooperate, as well as a BIM-based facility management system to share information delivered from previous phases and improve the efficiency and safety of MEP management during the operation and maintenance period. The application in a real-world airport terminal illustrates that the proposed model and two systems can support collaborative construction management and facility management with multi-scale functionalities among participants. This paper proposes a series of feasible models and techniques to promote BIM application in large MEP projects.
descriptive model; hill terrain; wind characteristics;wind-tunnel test
In both structural and environmentalwind engineering, the vertical variation of wind direction is important as it impacts both the torsional response of the high-rise building and the pedestrian level wind environment. In order to systematicallyinvestigate the vertical variation of wind directions (i.e.,the so-called ‘twist effect’) induced by hills with idealized geometries, aseries of wind-tunnel tests was conducted.The length-to-width aspect ratios of the hill models were 13⁄, 1/2, 1, 2 and 3, and the measurements of both wind speeds and directions were taken on a three-dimensional grid system. From the wind-tunnel tests, it has been found that the direction changesandmost prominentat the half heightof the hill. On the other hand, the characteristiclength of the direction change, has been found to increase when moving from the windward zone into the wake. Based on the wind-tunnel measurements, a descriptive model is proposed to calculate both the horizontal and vertical variations of wind directions. Preliminarily validated against the wind-tunnel measurements, the proposed model has been found to be acceptable to describethe direction changesinduced by an idealized hill with anaspectratio close to 1.For the hills with aspect ratios less than 1, while the description of the vertical variation is still valid, the horizontal description proposed by the model has been found unfit.
S.W. Li, Z.Z. Hu, K.T. Tse, A.U. Weerasuriya. Wind direction field under the influence of topography, part II: CFD investigations[J]. Wind and Structures. 2016, 22(4): 477-501.
computation; topography; wind characteristics; direction changes
Though hilly topography influences both wind speeds and directions aloft, only the influence onwind speeds, i.e. the speed-up effect, has been thoroughly investigated. Due to the importance of a model showing the spatial variations of wind directions above hilly terrains, it is worthwhile to systematically assess the applicability and limitations of the model describing the influence of hilly topographies on wind directions. Based on wind-tunnel test results, a model, which describes the horizontal and vertical variations of the wind directionsseparately, has been proposedin acompanion paper. CFD(Computational Fluid Dynamics) techniques wereemployed in the present paper to evaluate the applicability of the proposed model. From the investigation, it has been found that the model is acceptable for describing the vertical variation of wind directionsby a shallow hill whose primary-to-secondary axis ratio (aspect ratio) is larger than 1. When the overall hill slope exceeds 20°, the proposed model should be used with caution. When the aspect ratio is less than 1, the proposed model is less accurate in predicting the spatial variation of wind directions in the wake zone in a separatedflow. In addition, it has been found that local slope of a hill has significant impact on the applicability of the proposed model. Specifically, the proposed model is only applicable when local slope of a hill varies gradually from 0 (at the hill foot) to the maximum value (at the mid-slope point) and then to 0 (at the hill top).
Zhen-Zhong Hu, Xiao-Yang Zhang, Heng-Wei Wang, Mohamad Kassem. Improving interoperability between architectural and structural design models: An industry foundation classes-based approach with web-based tools[J]. Automation in Construction. 2016, 66: 29-42.
BIM; Data Model; IFC; Model Conversion; Structural Analysis; WebGL
Medium and large construction projects typically involve multiple structural consultants who use a wide range of structural analysis applications. These applications and technologies have inadequate interoperability and there is still a dearth of investigations addressing interoperability issues in the structural engineering domain. This paper proposes a novel approach which combines an industry foundation classes (IFC)-based Unified Information Model with a number of algorithms to enhance the interoperability: (a) between architectural and structural models, and (b) among multiple structural analysis models (bidirectional conversion or round tripping). The proposed approach aims to achieve the conversion by overcoming the inconsistencies in data structures, representation logics and syntax used in different software applications.
The approach was implemented in both Client Server (C/S) and Browser Server (B/S) environments to enable central and remote collaboration among geographically dispersed users. The platforms were tested in four large real-life projects. The testing involved four key scenarios: (a) the bidirectional conversion among four structural analysis tools; (b) the comparison of the conversion via the proposed approach with the conversion via direct links among the involved tools; (c) the direct export from an IFC-based architectural tool through the Application Program Interface (API), and (d) the conversion and visualization of structural analysis results. All these scenarios were successfully performed and tested in four significant case studies. In particular, the conversion among the four structural analysis applications (ETABS, SAP2000, ANSYS and MIDAS) was successfully tested for all possible conversion routes among the four applications in two of the case studies (i.e., Project A and Project B). The first four steps of natural mode shapes and their natural vibration periods were calculated and compared with the converted models. They were all achieved within a standard deviation of 0.1 s and 0.2 s in Project A and Project B, respectively, indicating an accurate conversion.
Jia-Rui Lin, Zhen-Zhong Hu, Jian-Ping Zhang,and Fang-Qiang Yu. A natural-language-based approach to intelligent data retrieval and representation for cloud BIM[J]. Computer-Aided Civil and Infrastructure Engineering. 2016, 31:18–33.
As the information from diverse disciplines continues to integrate during the whole life cycle of an Architecture, Engineering, and Construction (AEC) project, the BIM (Building Information Model/Modeling) becomes increasingly large. This condition will cause users difficulty in acquiring the information they truly desire on a mobile device with limited space for interaction. The situation will be even worse for personnel without extensive knowledge of Industry Foundation Classes (IFC) or for non-experts of the BIM software. To improve the value of the big data of BIM, an approach to intelligent data retrieval and representation for cloud BIM applications based on natural language processing was proposed. First, strategies for data storage and query acceleration based on the popular cloud-based database were explored to handle the large amount of BIM data. Then, the concepts “keyword” and “constraint” were proposed to capture the key objects and their specifications in a natural-language-based sentence that expresses the requirements of the user. Keywords and constraints can be mapped to IFC entities or properties through the International Framework for Dictionaries (IFD). The relationship between the user’s requirement and the IFC-based data model was established by path finding in a graph generated from the IFC schema, enabling data retrieval and analysis. Finally, the analyzed and summarized results of BIM data were represented based on the structure of the retrieved data. A prototype application was developed to validate the proposed approach on the data collected during the construction of the terminal of Kunming Airport, the largest single building in China. The case study illustrated the following: (1) relationships between the user requirements and the data users concerned are established, (2) user-concerned data can be automatically retrieved and aggregated based on the cloud for BIM, and (3) the data are represented in a proper form for a visual view and a comprehensive report. With this approach, users can significantly benefit from requesting for information and the value of BIM will be enhanced.
Jianping Zhang, Fangqiang Yu, Ding Li and Zhenzhong Hu. Development and Implementation of an Industry Foundation Classes-Based Graphic Information Model for Virtual Construction[J]. Computer-Aided Civil and Infrastructure Engineering, 2014, 29: 60-74.
Virtual Construction (VC) applications encounter difficulty in sharing and exchanging information with one another due to the long periods of interoperability limitation. To address these issues, an Industrial Foundation Classes-based graphic information model (IFC-GIM) is developed according to the exchange requirement of VC, and using the representations of three models in the IFC schema and its extension by defining the dynamic property set and properties for animation. The three models include the physical object model, the construction information model, and the realistic model. An OpenGL-based VC platform is developed and applied to a 440-m-high building to implement the IFC-GIM. The results demonstrate that the proposed IFC-GIM lays the foundation for data sharing and exchange among VC systems and other IFC-compliant applications, which, in turn, significantly reduces the modeling effort for VC and increases the value of VC results. Furthermore, animation is applied to simulate construction activities by the VC platform in addition to color and transparency, enhancing realistic feelings in 4D applications.
Hu Zhenzhong, Zhang Jianping. BIM-and 4D-based integrated solution of analysis and management for conflicts and structural safety problems during construction: 2. Development and site trials[J]. Automation in Construction, 2011, 20(2): 167-180.
Conflict analysis, Structural safety analysis, Construction management, System development, Site trial
In order to achieve the information-based integrated construction management, e.g., time-dependent structures analysis, schedule/resource/cost conflict analysis as well as dynamic collision detection amongst site facilities and main structure elements, an integrated archetypal system named 4D-GCPSU 2009 is developed. Through 3 project examples, it is verified that the integrated solution is able to assist construction managers or owners in the aspects of analysis and management for process conflict and structural safety problems during construction. The application outcome of the system is accepted and praised by users as they considered that the system functions and analysis results provide significant reference support to the approval and revision of construction proposals, increase efficiency and safety concerning building construction. They also point out some difficulties in practice. As for those difficulties mentioned, a series of solutions plus further development orientation are put forth.
Zhang Jianping, Hu Zhenzhong. BIM-and 4D-based integrated solution of analysis and management for conflicts and structural safety problems during construction: 1. Principles and methodologies[J]. Automation in construction, 2011, 20(2): 155-166.
Integrated solution, Conflict analysis, Structural safety analysis, Building information model (BIM), Construction management
Strengthening construction safety analysis and management is of great social and economic significance. For a long time, however, there has been a lack of effective management tools in this important area that involves people's lives and property. Based on new developments in the Building Information Model (BIM), four-dimensional (4D) technology, time-dependent structural analysis, collision detection, and so on, a 4D structural information model is presented and established according to the overall solution of analysis and management for conflict and safety problems during construction. Based on this sub-BIM, the integration of dynamic safety analysis of time-dependent structures, conflict analysis and management of schedule/resource/cost, and dynamic collision detection of site facilities is studied, and theories and key technologies are discussed in detail. The results of this research provide a feasible theory and methodology for integrated applications of BIM. Furthermore, this study proposes a new approach for conflict and safety analysis during construction through the integration of construction simulation, 4D construction management, and safety analysis. The approach lays a foundation for the popularization of complicated theories and methodologies, and has theoretical significance and application prospects in meeting the needs of improving the safety level during construction.
Zhenzhong HU, Fangqiang Yu, Guoxing LI, et al. An approach to multi-constrained 3D modeling for curtain wall system based on spatial point-line model[J]. Advanced Materials Research. 2011(201-203): 15-23
The accurate spatial 3D models and corresponding coordinates of every key point are needed to determine the sizes, shapes, and locations of installation for all curtain wall elements in the process of production and construction. To solve the transition problems between architectural design and construction design of curtain wall system, four kinds of single-constrained computer-aided 3D modeling algorithm for spatial point-line models were discussed in detail. Then, a multi-constrained iterative 3D modeling process was proposed by considering coupling relationships amongst the various constraints. A 3D modeling system named T3-CW-CAD was developed and applied to the Shenzhen Airport Terminal 3. The application results showed that the presented-algorithm can meet the overall demand for automatically generating multi-layer 3D models according to spatial point-line model, along with sizes and other restraints amongst curtain wall elements, therefore playing a key role in guiding the production and construction of curtain wall system.
Ming Lu, Yang Zhang, Jianping Zhang, Zhenzhong Hu, Jiulin Li. Integration of four-dimensional computer-aided design modeling and three-dimensional animation of operations simulation for visualizing construction of the main stadium for the Beijing 2008 Olympic games[J]. Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering, 2009, 36(3): 473-479.
Visualization, 3D modeling, Computer Aided Design, Animation, Simulation, Construction management, Project management
In this paper, we give a state review of modeling methodologies for four-dimensional computer-aided design (4D CAD) and three-dimensional (3D) animation of operations simulation. We then present our efforts of integrating 4D CAD and 3D animation of operations simulation to facilitate the construction planning of the main stadium for the Beijing 2008 Olympic Games (nicknamed the “Bird’s Nest”). We propose a “zoom” interface between 4D CAD and 3D animation of operations simulation to enable a natural synergy of two separate, but organically linked research streams. For concept proving and application demonstration, we seamlessly integrated two computer systems resulting from previous in-house research to plan and visualize the construction of the “Bird’s Nest” in close collaboration with the main contractor. The integrated construction planning methodology is found instrumental in visually and intuitively conveying the master project schedule and detailed operations plan for construction of the “Bird’s Nest”.
Large-scale public buildings play an irreplaceable role in business, office, tourism, science, education, culture and health, communication and transportation. Due to technical difficulties, large public buildings usually lack operation and maintenance (O&M) management information platforms. To ease these difficulties, this paper presents an application method of lightweight O&M management platform for large-scale public buildings based on GIS. Large-scale public buildings’ drawings are converted into map services through conversion and editing. Attribute data are summarized to form hierarchical structures, and unique identifiers are given to establish standard attribute libraries. Based on these libraries, O&M management processes are reviewed to form standard O&M management procedures and data flows. A unified platform is developed to integrate the above 4 achievements before actual application. This method is tested in a large airport terminal. A lightweight O&M management platform is developed, which realizes the information O&M management of the terminal. The results have verified the effectiveness and operability of the proposed method.
As an emerging technology in the construction field, building information modeling/model (BIM) technology is making profound influence on the development of the construction industry, while the cross-disciplinary application of artificial intelligence (AI) technology has become increasingly widespread. The combination of BIM with AI methods is characterized with good feasibility and broad prospects. However, related research and application at home and abroad are still at the initial stage. Based on extensive literature review, this paper summarizes previous studies on BIM-based AI from the perspective of technology, system and application, and introduces commonly used AI technologies, typical development platforms and methods, as well as the successful applications in different construction stages such as design, construction, operation and maintenance. In this light, the problems and challenges in the field are analyzed, the causes of the problems summarized, and the future direction of development anticipated.
There are a lot of sensor data collected in the construction, operation and maintenance of buildings, but these data only existed in the respective monitoring systems, leading to a situation of “information island”, thus the sensor data cannot be effectively used. BIM (building information
model/modeling) technology can implement integrated management and application of sensor data and engineering data. The IFC (industrial foundation classes) standard which is an international standard for BIM storage, is still not sufficient for sensors and their data. In this paper, IFC-based sensor information storage method and application process are presented. Specifically, the description and association mechanism of sensor information in IFC are analyzed, followed by the extension of IFC property set to achieve the storage of such information. Finally, the IFC-based application process of sensor information is described. The proposed methods were applied to the HuaiFang Water Reclamation Plant in Beijing for validation.
Inadequate integration and interoperability are still inflicting an economic burden with the increasing requirement of model conversion between architectural and structural models. This paper presents a novel approach which combines an Industry Foundation Classes (IFC)-Application Program Interface (API) based conversion approach with our previous research on model conversion among different structural analysis models, providing a Building Information Model (BIM)-based model conversion framework towards structural finite element analysis to improve the efficiency within design industry. The approach was implemented in the self-developed BIM-based conversion platform based on the optimization algorithm of model display. The platform was tested in a teaching building to verify the conversion process. This research has made a breakthrough in the theory, technology, and application of model conversion towards structural finite element analysis and has established the foundation for the subsequent research of BIM-based simulation and analysis for time-varying structures.
Xiao Yaqi, Hu Zhenzhong, Wang Wei, Chen Xiangxiang. A mobile application framework of the BIM-based facility management system under the cross-platform structure. Computer Aided Drafting, Design and Manufacturing, 2016, 26(1): 58-65.
facility management; building information model/modeling; mobile application; cross-platform; hybrid application
The building information model/modeling (BIM) technology is currently applied in a broad range of applications and research for facility management (FM), while the BIM-based mobile FM is difficult owing to various factors and environments. For example, the mobile applications usually require frequent cross-equipment compatibility. This paper proposes a reasonable BIM-based FM cross-platform framework and develops a mobile application on the basis of an existing BIM-based FM system. The developed mobile application is applied in a case study of a metro station project in Guangzhou to verify its effectiveness in FM practice. It helps maintenance staff in viewing BIMs, accessing related information, and updating maintenance records in a unique platform. The test results demonstrate that the proposed BIM-based cross-platform framework meet the FM application requirements and supports the extension of FM functions.
Industry foundation class(IFC) based building information modeling(BIM) systems has developed rapidly in recent years. However, there are still few methods and tools supporting web-oriented transmissions and querires of IFC model data. This paper describes a web-enabled IFC object model using the JSON format and the IFC data cache with the Redis distributed key-value store for IFC applications in web environment. Stepwise and dynamic parsing of the IFC data enables lightweight, standardized network data transmission with large-capacity, high-spped dynamic parsing of the IFC data. Tests show that the object model and the parsing method are able to support web BIM applications and significantly enhance the efficiency of parsing IFC data files, with double the parsing speed of large (over 30 MB) IFC files.
building information model(BIM);pipeline;piping support; prefabricated components;detailed design
随着中国建筑产业化进程的不断推进，管道工程也更多地由现场施工转为工厂预制加工的生产方式，然而当前管道预制构件深化设计技术落后的现状制约了管道工厂化生产和施工的进一步发展和推广应用。为解决此问题，该文针对预制管段、支架及管组等深化设计的具体需求，引入建筑信息模型(Building information model,BIM)技术，提出了一种面向管道预制构件的自动深化设计方法，实现了管道辅助划分、支架半自动设计和管组智能拼装。在此基础上研发了一个通用的管道预制构件智能设计系统，解决了模型可视化、递进式参数化建模以及模型信息共享等3个核心技术问题。该系统应用于2个实际工程项目，验证了所提出的方法和系统应用于管道预制构件深化设计的可行性，表明其能提高设计效率、减少材料浪费。
The industrialization of China is creating prefabricated pipelines instead of pipeline made on site. However, prefabricated pipeline design methods are not entirely suitable for manufacturing in the factory and assembling on site. A building information model(BIM) isintroduced here for designing prefabricated pipelines. An automatic prefabricated pipeline design method was developed for dividing the pepelines with a semi-automatic design method for pipeline supports and an intelligent assembling method for pipeline groups. A general purpose prefabricated pipeline design system was then developed. The method addresses three core issues for model visualization, progressive parametric modeling and information sharing. The model is applied to two real-world projects to show the enhanced design efficiency and reduced material waste.
Introducing BIM into building operation and maintenance management (O&M management) has significant benefits. Though the number of related literatures keeps increasing in recent years, current domestic and foreign researches and applications on BIM-based O&M are generally in the exploratory stage. Based on a broad literature survey, this paper reviewed domestic and foreign BIM-based O&M researches and applications from the perspective of technology researches and application projects.Relevant key technologies, research status and related system developments were introduced. The functions and project applications were then summarized. Finally the challenges and bottlenecks for BIM-based O&M management, as well as an outlook for future researches were discussed.
A bridge management system (BMS) is a management toolkit helpingmanagers collect information, conduct modal analysis and devise polices on adaily basis. The current systems, however, exhibit some common problems. Forinstance, the analysis and evaluation models lag the development of the entiresystem, poor human-machine interaction experience and difficult to maintain,etc. In this research, WebGIS technology is adopted to enhance datavisualization, improve the interaction experience, and solve the problem ofresource sharing. On the other hand, improved degradation model and cost modelare proposed to improve the accuracy of lifecycle analysis and evaluation for bridges.Then a prototype of a new generation BMS is developed for the tracking,analysis and evaluation of bridges-in-service by recording the historicinspection data and then mining the useful data to predict the future status ofa bridge. Application shows that WebGIS technology can improve the efficiencyof bridge management.
Management of machine, electric, plumbing (MEP) plays an important role during operation and maintenance management of a building. At present, building automation system (BAS) is the primary mean of MEP management, but the monitoring information of BAS cannot be effectively shared or used by other systems. Data sharing within building lifecycle can be achieved by adopting building information modeling (BIM) technology while most BIM researches and applications for MEP focus on establishing a product model that contains a wealth of information to improve the management efficiency by information inquiries. Few researches in the integration of BIM and MEP monitoring information are reported. By studying the integrated approach of BIM and MEP monitoring information, an extended model of MEP monitoring information can be established based on BIM. The model can provide data to support the operation and maintenance management of MEP, maximizing the value of MEP monitoring information.
MEP Engineering；Operation and Maintenance Period；Building Information Model（BIM）；Facility Management；Two-dimensional Code
传统的机电设备运维信息主要来源于纸质的竣工资料，在用到这些信息时，往往要从海量纸质的图纸和文档中去寻找。如何采用电子化手段有效地组织这些信息，以实现设计和施工阶段的有效信息能传递到运维期并辅助运维管理，是当前建筑生命周期管理中需要解决的重要问题。本研究通过引入建筑信息模型（BIM）和二维码技术，开发基于BIM的机电设备智能管理系统（BIM-FIM 2012），实现了机电设备工程的电子化集成交付，以及建筑物运维期的维护维修管理和应急管理，为保障所有设备系统的安全运行提供高效的手段和系统平台支持。MEP Engineering；Operation and Maintenance Period；Building Information Model（BIM）；Facility Management；Two-dimensional Code
Traditionally，operation and maintenance information for MEP mainly comes from completion data in the forms of drawings or documents.When the information is needed，it requires manual searches from such a huge amount of paper files.In order to realize the information transmission from design and construction phases to operation and maintenance period，effectively organization of such information by electronic means is the key issue to be resolved in current building lifecycle management.This can also enhance the information-aided maintenance.By introducing Building Information Model（BIM）and two-dimensional code，a BIM-based Facility Intelligent Management System（BIM-FIM 2012）is developed to realize the electronic integrated delivery of MEP，and to improve the maintenance management and emergency management of a building during its operation and maintenance period.The System also provides an effective way and platform to ensure the safe operations of all MEP systems.
BIM Server provides a solution for BIM to support construction life cycle.Currently，the structure of BIM Server is C/S，but gradually B/S also shows its advantages.The release of the HTML5 standard brings the WebGL technology which supports hardware graphics acceleration in browser and is one of a series of revolutionary Web technologies.Thereby the foundation is laid for achieving Web-oriented BIM information management and 3D display of BIM model.In this paper，the model information scope and its expression of Web-oriented BIM is analyzed，and the corresponding information management technology and the BIM model display based on the Three.js，which is a WebGL framework，are studied.Then，a WebGL-based platform for 3D display and information management of BIM is also developed.Application shows that the graphics platform of the platform performs stable with nice rendering for large BIM.Meanwhile the platform provides rich feature supports for Web client by favorable interactive functions，showing a great application value.
Collision detection is an effective adjunct for three-dimensional CAD of construction projects. The
complex and large scale modern architectures bring demand for higher efficiency of collision detection algorithm.
Based on the two most widely applied pretreatments, i.e., spatial decomposition and spatial occupancy, an
integrated and efficient accurate collision detection algorithm is proposed. Through the testing and analysis of
project examples, the results show that the proposed algorithm is more efficient than other algorithms, and the
larger the model is, the more obvious its efficiency advantage is. For the actual demand of different construction
projects, the integrated algorithm is also improved and applied to actual projects to verify its effectiveness and
robustness. The practical applications show that the algorithm is applicable to the collision detection between
building structures and MEP (Mechanical, Electrical & Plumbing) engineering.
The Industry Foundation Classes (IFC) developed by International Alliance for Interoperability(IAI) has been known as a common product model for data exchange and model sharing． In architecture design，entity types and property sets in IFCs are nearly enough to meet the needs． However，in the construction，entity types are insufficient for data description． Therefore，we analyses the demand for data description in construction in mainland China，and extend the IFC model．At last，we test the extension model by some real projects and give some suggestions for further research．
4D technology, Building information model, Construction,Scaffold system, Safety analysis
建筑施工支撑系统倒塌在我国建筑工程施工安全事故中占很大比例,使施工支撑体系安全分析的研究得到广泛重视。该文通过研究现有的支撑体系安全分析方法,针对其三维建模和对施工期连续时变特性描述和分析等方面存在的不足,引入4D（4-Dimensional,四维）技术和BIM（Building Information Model,建筑信息模型）,通过建立4D施工安全信息模型,将支撑体系与施工过程信息动态地链接起来,能快速建立支撑体系的3D模型,并自动生成随进度变化的支撑体系安全分析模型,从而简化支撑体系的力学分析过程,提高了计算精度和效率,为支撑体系的分析计算提供了新的途径和方法。该文还通过一个应用实例,验证了将4D施工安全信息模型应用于施工期支撑体系安全分析的可行性。
Collapses of scaffold system account for a significant proportion in construction accidents so that safety analysis of scaffold system during construction received wide attention. However, the existing calculation methods have some deficiencies in 3D modeling and time-dependent description. This paper proposed a new safety analysis approach for scaffold system during construction by inducting 4D (4-Dimensional) technology and BIM (Building Information Model). The 4D Construction Safety Information Model, which provides complete information for dynamic connection between scaffold system and construction process information, is presented and established so that 3D models and structural analysis model of scaffold system can be generated rapidly and automatically, therefore the safety analysis process can be simplified greatly. This paper also demonstrates that
safety analysis of scaffold system based on the 4D Construction Safety Information Model is feasible and practical through an application example.
A 4-D space-t ime model and an improved construction collision detection algorithm were developed for site entities to improve construction safety management. The model uses the hierarchy bounding boxes algorithm and the 4-D technology and building information model(BIM) . The 4-D construction site layout management system accurately describes the 3-D shapes of site entities using the boundary representation (B-rep) method. The algorithm helps managers to dynamically analyze the construction process and avoid collisions between site entities and structural elements to improve the planning and deploym ent of site resources to meet the construction needs.
The faade of Shenzhen Airport Terminal 3 (T3) is a parametric shaping design based on freeform surface. Architect provides a single layer wireframe model for facade outer skin by listing related spacial point coordinates. During design development，it’s required for facade consultant to pretreat the raw data from architect in order to develop information of guidance for fabrication and construction，and then rebuild a multi-layer 3D model with post-treatment besides drawing output. Thus，based on the raw model and data，a CAD system integrated pretreatment / auto-modeling / post-treatment for curtain wall engineering of T3 ( T3-CW-CAD) is developed to increase the efficiency of drawing designing. The authors discuss the requirements，data structure and core algorithms of the system in detail.
First, a BIM-based framework for life cycle management of bridges was proposed.Then, according to the application framework layer within the entire framework, four application aspects and functional requirements were illustrated in detail, including BIM-based quick modeling, construction management, durability monitoring, and cost analysis and prediction. Some suggestions for BIM system development were proposed.
Based on previous research achievement —4D construction management system, in order to meet specific requirements of real projects and to enhance the construction conflict analysis abilities of the system, the authors firstly summarize conflict analysis needs for schedule management, resource management and cost management during construction by investigation. Then an improved analysis and management approach for construction conflict is proposed by inducting the 4D information model to solve corresponding technical problems , followed by a detailed description of the work flow of conflict analysis and management. The static alert mechanism according to current construction status and the dynamic early2 warning mechanism are illustrated based on prediction information by development trends during construction. Finally, examples of project applications show that the improved approach proposed can help project managers to grasp and analyze various construction conflicts, achieve purposes of conflict early warning and decision2making support.
HU Zhenzhong, ZHANG Jianping, DENG Ziyin. Construction process simulation and safety analysis based on building information model and 4D technology. Tsinghua Science and Technology, 2008, 13(S1): 266-272.
Building information model (BIM), Four-dimensional (4D) technology, Structure analysis, Construction simulation, Industry foundation class
Time-dependent structure analysis theory has been proved to be more accurate and reliable compared to commonly used methods during construction. However, so far applications are limited to partial period and part of the structure because of immeasurable artificial intervention. Based on the building information model (BIM) and four-dimensional (4D) technology, this paper proposes an improves structure analysis method, which can generate structural geometry, resistance model, and loading conditions automatically by a close interlink of the schedule information, architectural model, and material properties. The method was applied to a safety analysis during a continuous and dynamic simulation of the entire construction process. The results show that the organic combination of the BIM, 4D technology, construction simulation, and safety analysis of time-dependent structures is feasible and practical. This research also lays a foundation for further researches on building lifecycle management by combining architectural design, structure analysis, and construction management.
The paper presents applications of simplified discrete-event simulation (SDESA), and 4D-GCPSU, to the National Stadium of the Beijing 2008 Olympics. Taking into account influential factors, e.g., resource, spatial condition, and the randomness of the construction process, the installation process of the steel-structure was simulated and optimized by using genetic algorithm (GA) optimization methodology. The operations simulation shortened the installation duration by 39 days (about 16% of the original total duration), guided the manufacturers to plan the construction processes, and provided specific suggestions on the entry time of the installation components, resulting in resource allocation optimization, resource saving, and construction efficiency improvement. Combining with the optimized schedule, the 4D visualization environment can discover time-space conflicts timely, and may assist project managers to reschedule the construction activities in tune with the site layout and resource allocation.
Time-dependent theory has been proven to be more accurate and reliable for safety analysis of structures during construction compared to the traditional static method based on probability. However, applications are restricted in partial periods and partial structures because of the immeasurable artificial intervention. By inducting 4D technology to safety analysis of time-dependent structures during construction, a visualized environment is provided, where the entire analysis data including structure models are accessible
according to the construction schedule. Thus, continuously and dynamically time-dependent analysis is achieved. This idea simplifies the process and enhances the efficiency of structure calculation. This paper demonstrates that the organic combination of 4D technology and time-dependent theory is feasible, proposes the 4D safety analysis model of time-dependent structures and the corresponding method for safety analysis, and presents a system for 4D-based construction management and safety analysis.
In order to enhance Qingdao Bay Bridge project management level and efficiency , Tsinghua University , cooperation with the investors, developed 4D construction management system for Qingdao Bay Bridge by establishing the Qingdao Bay Bridge 4D information model and its information integration mechanism. The system implemented the construction visual simulation and 4D dynamic managements of construction progress, labor, material, machinery and construction quality by the mutual links of engineering model, construction schedule and resources. The experimental results show that 4D technology is supposed to raise information management and improve the efficiency of the Qingdao Bay Bridge project. The research presents a new information management method for bridge construction, and has a high practical value and broad prospects.
In order to overcome the inherent shortcom ings in know ledge acquisition and applicability of traditional engineering decision support systems(EDSS), a new mechanism that integrates datamining(DM) technology with engineering decision support technologies is proposed and an intelligent decision support plat form for engineering decision makings named DM-EDSS is introduced. DM-EDSS aims to automatically extract useful know ledge (predictive models or rules) from a large amount of historical engineering data, and provide decision supports to solve new engineering problems by reasoning on the extracted know ledge. The results of case study show that the know ledge extracted by DM-EDSS can provide valuable suggestions for engineering decisionm akings, and the reasoning results are of acceptable precisions that can meet the requirements of engineering practices.
Shuo Leng, Zhen-Zhong Hu, Zheng Luo, Jian-Ping Zhang, Jia-Rui Lin. Automatic MEP knowledge acquisition based on documents and natrual language processing. Proc. of the 36rd CIB W78 Conference, Newcast, UK. Sep. 2019
Mechanical, Electrical and Plumbing (MEP) systems are critical assets in buildings. A series of systematic specifications have been developed and extensive experiences have been accumulated as human knowledge to guide the design and maintenance of MEP systems. However, most of the MEP-related knowledge is represented in the form of unstructured texts and heterogeneously dispersed in the design documents and Internet. It is therefore difficult for managing, querying and utilizing them. To address this challenge, the research study described in this paper constructed a knowledge graph by automatic collecting and storing of MEP knowledge from unstructured data. Specifically, the MEP documents were first acquired from the Internet, and multiple Natural Language Processing (NLP) techniques were then adopted to extract entity and discover relationship from the information documented in these documents. Finally, the knowledge graph was established and presented in a vivid form. The constructed knowledge graph is expected to contribute to the promotion of AI technology in the Architecture, Engineering and Construction (AEC) industry.
J.R. Lin, Y.C. Zhou, J.P. Zhang, Z.Z. Hu. Classification and exemplary BIM models development of design changes. Proc. of the 36rd ISARC, Banff, Canada. May. 2019
Design changes; Classification; Building information Modeling; Exemplary model database; Validation
Detection of design changes is essential for collaboration and version management in the design process of buildings. However, current detection methods based on Building Information Modeling (BIM) usually cause unreliable or meaningless results. This is because most of the current researches look at the question from a data change view, which sometimes is meaningless from a designer’s view. To overcome this problem, this paper first classifies and identifies meaningful design changes from a designer's view, and develops exemplary BIM models of typical design changes. In this paper, categories of data changes are divided into property data, appearance data and relationship data, and design changes are classified into instance level, type level and model level from a designer’s view. The test of two BIM tools (Autodesk BIM360 and IFCdiff) with developed BIM models shows that the detection results for changes at instance level are perfect while detection results for type and model level still need to be further improved. This work contributes a new view and classification method of design changes, and also sets up a baseline model database for further development and validation of relevant methods and tools.
Ya-Qi Xiao, Zhen-Zhong Hu, Jia-Rui Lin. Ontology-Based Semantic Retrieval Method of Energy Consumption Management. Advances in Informatics and Computing in Civil and Construction Engineering, 2018: 231-238.
Shuang Yuan, Zhen-Zhong Hu, Yang Peng. Application of BIM in Environmental Monitoring and Emergency Evacuation Management within Building Operation and Maintenance Phase: A Case Study. Proceedings of 17th ICCCBE, Tampere, Finland. Jun. 2018
Building Information Modeling, Building Operation and Maintenance Management, Environmental Monitoring, Emergency Evacuation Management
The past few decades have witnessed the birth and development of BIM technologies, greatly enhancing the extent, quality and efficiency of the operation and maintenance management of buildings. It is critical that the building managing community is aware of this groundbreaking tool. Traditional operation and maintenance management practices are largely hurdled by the difficulty to retrieve precise, real-time, full-scale and multi-dimensional
building system data, to which a solution is presented by the combination of BIM technologies with sensor systems, which collect data including occupant presence, utility usage, environmental parameters, etc. Additionally, BIM technologies also present managers with a means to query building system information in case of emergencies, such as locating faulty wires or finding shortest path for evacuation. This paper takes a recently constructed building in Shenzhen, China as an example, and looks into how BIM-based management system may exploit sensors implemented inside the building to help exert efficient environmental monitoring, and provide assistance for managing emergency evacuations.
Yunyi Zhang, Jiarui Lin, Jianping Zhang, Dongdong Fan, Zhenzhong Hu. How Information Technology Can Improve Construction Management for General Contractor: A Case Study. Proc. of the 3rd ICCBEI, Taibei. Apr. 2017
Information Technology, BIM Application, Case Study, Construction Management
Information technology such as Building Information Modeling, 3D-printing provides an innovative
approach for construction project management, aiming at increasing efficiency, improving quality and reducing
cost. Construction corporations in mainland China are making active attempts to increase the informatization level
in construction projects. This paper discusses Beijing Headquarter building project of Tencent as a case study for
the information technology application in the construction phase in terms of how information technology can
improve construction management for general contractor.
The project for case study is designed as a large public building located in Beijing, with a footprint area
of 334,386 square meters. Considering the complexity of the structure, tight schedule and difficulties in detailed
construction, various of attempts of information technology application have been made in the project, including
4D-BIM integrated management, 3D-printing, construction simulation. These attempts cover schedule, quality,
safety and cost management, resulting in reduction of redundant work, optimized detailed design, improved
efficiency, etc. This paper examines the process of each application and analyzes the necessity of each technique
by comparing the benefits and the devotion. This project won the first prize in “Longtu Cup” national BIM
competition in 2015 and held an exhibition presenting information technology application.
The paper also discusses the value and challenges appeared during the application of information
technology in the case. Information technology application can result in resource and workload reduction, problem
solving in advance and realizing precise management, thus improving construction management for general
contractor. However, promoting information technology application can be challenging at first, given the
management team is not familiar enough with the techniques. Countermeasures are proposed regarding the
challenges and difficulties arose in the case.
Yi Zhou, Zhen-Zhong Hu, Xiao-Yang Zhang, Jia-Rui Lin. A BIM-based Safety Monitoring and Analysis System for a High-speed Railway Bridge. Proc. of the 33rd CIB W78 Conference, Brisbane, Australia. Nov. 2016
Safety monitoring remains a challenging issue in engineering construction although the demand for safety monitoring has reached its peak. This study investigates the innovative application of building information modeling/model (BIM) technology in the safety monitoring of engineering projects. BIM technology provides the design and development of monitoring data interface, the visualization and dynamic integration of monitoring data, security monitoring management, dynamic security analysis, safety prediction, and early warning system for engineering projects. Through the successful implementation in the Xu Huaiyan Bridge project, the validity and feasibility of BIM-based safety monitoring and management in guaranteeing safety and quality in construction were confirmed, thereby proving that it would worthy of further application and promotion.
Zhang Xiaoyang, Lin Jiarui, Hu Zhenzhong, Zhang Jianping, Fang Ji, and Du Shenyun. Towards BIM-based Model Integration and Safety Analysis for Brdige Construction. Proceedings of 16th ICCCBE, Osaka, Japan. Jul. 2016
BIM, Data Model, Model Integration, Integrated Application
Construction projects are challenging because of significant investment from various investors. The completion of construction work also requires the collaboration among experts from several disciplines. However, previous works on the integration of information available in the design, construction, and maintenance phases are insufficient. In this study, we initially reviewed the previous studies in this area and then discussed the possible challenges and demands. Afterward, we presented a thorough comparison of different models (i.e., Tekla model as architectural model and Midas Civil model as structural analysis model) and software applications. Then, we proposed a novel approach in which a unified information model and a region-based feature point matching algorithm (RFPMA) were employed to enhance the integration of information available in different phases of a construction project. Furthermore it has been achieved to dynamically integrate the monitoring data and analysis results into the unified inform model. Finally, we proposed the method and the overall workflow that show how the available information in different phases is integrated. The proposed approach was implemented in a Client Server (C/S) platform and applied in a large real project located at Jinan, Shandong Province, China, which is called Jinan Yellow River Bridge. The application involved several scenarios, including information sharing between Tekla model and Midas Civil model, synchronous model updating and data visualization, and collaborative analysis of the safety level during the construction process. This research has made a breakthrough in the theory, technology, and application of model integration and has established the foundation for safety management.
building information model; personnel safety; machine learning; decision tree; support vector machine
Ensuring personnel safety is mandatory in the operation and maintenance (O&M) management of large public buildings. Personnel safety hazards should be controlled in the O&M phase. As a crucial step in controlling hazards, the evaluation of the safety level should be based on the most accurate information. However, difficulties arise in such evaluation because of the complexity of variables that influence personnel safety. For this reason, this paper proposes a novel approach for evaluating personnel safety in public buildings. The proposed technique is based on two machine learning methods that apply building information model/modeling (BIM) technology. The proposed framework implements a supervised machine learning process through the following steps: (1) a training set, which is an integration of already known personnel safety levels derived from different sources, such as expert opinion, historical accident records, and attributes of the region, and the necessary data are extracted from BIM; (2) both decision tree and support vector machine are employed to summarize the evaluation rules; (3) evaluation of the safety levels of all regions of the building is performed automatically in accordance with these rules. The outputs would help O&M managers in dealing with each safety hazard. The proposed approach was implemented through a prototype and applied to a real public building, thereby proving that the machine learning methods were accurate and feasible in terms of safety evaluation. The proposed approach provided valuable information regarding safety management during the O&M phase.
Tianfeng He, Jianping Zhang, Jiarui Lin, Weidong Jia, and Zhenzhong Hu. A Topological and Hierarchical Information Integration Approach for Standard-unit-based Residential Planning. Proceedings of 16th ICCCBE, Osaka, Japan. Jul. 2016
BIM, IFC, Topological information, Hierarchical information, Information integration, Residential
Standard-unit is a residential design template which is concluded from flats sharing the same layout, similar
decorating style, and same kind of furniture and appliances. Conventional way to implement standard-unit is to
use standard design drawings. Such drawings are mainly kept as hard-copies or CAD digital files, which lacks
semantic information and makes it difficult to fully utilize the standard-units. Building Information
Model/Modeling (BIM) technology provides a solution to enhance the implementation of standard-unit. In this
study, we first developed a series of algorithm to extract semantic, topological and hierarchical information from
IFC-files. Then a topological and hierarchical information integration approach was proposed for standard-unitbased residential planning. A prototype database and modeling system were also developed to demonstrate this
approach. Both the database and modeling system were tested with real project data. The application indicates that
the proposed approach can efficiently integrate topological and hierarchical information in the residential project.
Wang Hengwei, Zhang Jianping, Hu Zhenzhong, Wang Hongdong. BIM-based Onsite Location-dynamic Information Integration and Management. Proc. of the 32nd CIB W78 Conference, Eindhoven, The Netherlands. Oct. 2015
Construction management; collaboration; BIM; metro station; case study
In addition to difficulties in collaboration and information sharing, each of the participants in Hedong metro station in Guangzhou, China, has special BIM-based management requirements during construction Based on a detail field investigation of different requirements from different participants, a series of methods including integrating different parametric 3D models, establishing the construction schedule and the 4D model by attaching each 3D component with a region attribute, and the order sheet method for construction process control were proposed to achieve meticulous construction management for this project. Then, a BIM-based multi-platform construction management system was developed for the owner, the engineering consultant and contractors. The application results show that the proposed methods and system reduced project cost, shortened construction duration, and ensured the safety of construction by contributing to the real-time communication and data exchanges within construction process and enabling tracking project updates and rapidly updating the data of construction activities.
Pei-Long Tian, Zhen-Zhong Hu, Heng-Wei Wang, Jian-Ping Zhang, Dong Zou. BIM-based Meticulous Construction Management for Metro Station Projects: A Case Study. Proc. of the 32nd CIB W78 Conference, Eindhoven, The Netherlands. Oct. 2015
Onsite localization; BIM; information integration; construction management;
Existing methods for onsite safety and quality management mainly focus on particular purposes such as risk detection, accident warning and quality monitoring, and are limited in construction phase. In order to control the quality and safety on the construction site, inspections with location information are applied to the management process. Existing methods to integrate location information to a reliable data source according to Building information modeling (BIM) technology is to manually input information delivered by hardcopies. However, the unreliable operation process limits the result validity and the efficiency of subsequent management. In this study, a concept called Onsite Inspection BIM is proposed for construction onsite information integration. Then a location-dynamic data collection approach and a location-dynamic onsite management framework are presented. Finally, a prototype system is developed and implemented in the construction of a metro station, demonstrating the feasibility and effects of the proposed solution.
Jiarui Lin, Jianping Zhang, Tianfeng He, Zhenzhong Hu, Fahai Yao. Visualization and automatic verification of a schedule-driven 4D model. 15th International Conference on Construction Applications of Virtual Reality. Proc. of the CONVR 2015, Banff, Alberta, Canada. October, 2015
Four dimensional, Visualization, Model verification, Schedule-driven model
By integrating physical 3D elements with time, 4D technology provides a comprehensive tool to visualize construction sequences as part of an interactive experience. With years of development, 4D technologies were adopted in more and more projects, to improve crew coordination, shorten the construction period, and to reduce request for information. Though research that improves the productivity of 4D tools exists, most studies so far failed to keep synchronization between work schedules and animations and are not capable to verify the 4D model automatically. By evaluating commonly used 4D visualization tools, the pros and cons are concluded in this article. Then, a schedule-driven 4D model is proposed, which consists of physical element model, geometry model, schedule model and visualization model. With this model, different construction operations can be represented by colors, textures, and transformations. What's more, processes for model verification and frame rendering were proposed in this research. Finally, demonstration of this model was implemented in the construction of a cable-stayed truss bridge over the Yangtze River. It is illustrated that with automatic model verification and a better visualization, the proposed model can reduce rework and mistakes. Future improvements of the model are also discussed in this article.
Xiao-Yang Zhang, Zhen-Zhong Hu and Heng-Wei Wang, Mohamad Kassem. An industry foundation classes Web-based approach and platform for bidirectional conversion of structural analysis models. Proceedings of 15th ICCCBE, Orlando, USA. Jun. 2014
Model Conversion, Structural Analysis, BIM, IFC, WebGL
Projects in the Architectural Engineering and Construction (AEC) industry involve several organizations and practitioners who require sharing very diverse set of information and models. Building Information Modeling (BIM) and open standards such as Industry Foundation Classes (IFC) have made substantial progress in improving the interoperability in recent years. However, inadequate interoperability is still inflicting an economic burden and is considered one of the main limiting factors for BIM adoption. This paper presents an IFC and Web-based approach and tool that enable a bidirectional conversion among structural analysis models. The approach consists of an IFC-based unified information model and a number of algorithms that help overcoming the differences between the data structures and representation logics of different structural analysis technologies. A web-based platform, that utilizes WebGL, was developed to enable the sharing and converting of different building models. The testing of the approach and the platform developed, in a live case study, demonstrated consistency in the conversion process and stability and rendering quality in the display of models over the Web browser.
Tianfeng He, Jiarui Lin, Zhenzhong Hu, Jianping Zhang, WeidongJia, Jing Su. BIM-Based Plan Modeling System at Preliminary Stage for Residential Real Estate Projects. Proceedings of 15th ICCCBE, Orlando, USA. Jun. 2014
Plan modeling, BIM, Performance analysis, Residential real estate
The preliminary stage of a residential real estate project is of great importance but also is known to be with poor efficiency. However, residential real estate project contains numerous built standard units such as dwelling units and floors. By introducing BIM, this research tapped the full potential of this advantage to improve the performance of the preliminary plan modeling in residential real estate projects. This research proposed a standard-unit-based modeling approach which contains 3 main steps: 1) standard unit management, 2) rapid plan modeling and 3) in-time estimation.By integrating functions such as intelligent standard unit boundary revision, sun analysis, multi-level and information-based model visualization,a prototype system was developed based on this approach, and wasapplied to a real estate project in Xian, China. The results indicate that this approach has the potential to improve the efficiency and quality of preliminary plan.
Jian-Ping Zhang, Qiang Liu, Fang-Qiang Yu, Zhen-Zhong Hu. A framework of cloud-computing-based BIM service for building lifecycle. Proceedings of 15th ICCCBE, Orlando, USA. Jun. 2014
BIM; Distributed server; Virtual integration; Cloud computing; Building lifecycle;
With the amount increasing, the BIM (Building Information Modeling or Building Information Model) data exchange and sharing face a series ofchallenges includingintegration ofdisparate data models,fast information extraction anddata consistency maintenance. Since the existing BIM data storing and transferring method based on neutral files or a centralized database cannot meet theabove-mentioned requirements, a framework ofdistributedBIMservice on a private cloud platform was proposed. By this BIM service, multi-stage participants store relevant data on their own servers, which arevirtually integratedthrough a CC (cloud computing) platformto form a logically complete BIM. It supports participantsto establish, manageand transfer consistentBIM data efficiently withensuring ofdata privacy.Toachieve this BIM service, a BIM integration and service platform (BIMISP) based on IFC (Industry Foundation Classes) and CC was developed. Proved by experiments, the research achievements are useful for improving the efficiency and quality of information extraction and delivery, ensuring the safety and legality of data sharing during building lifecycle.
Jia-Rui Lin, Zhen-Zhong Hu, Jian-Ping Zhang. BIM oriented intelligent data mining and representation. Proceedings of 30th CIB W78 International Conference, Beijing, China, Oct. 2013
Data mining, Semantic analysis, Building Information Model (BIM), Natural Language Processing
(NLP), International Framework for Dictionaries (IFD)
Building Information Model (BIM) encompasses mass of data specified by Industry Foundation Classes (IFC)
from multiple fields during the whole lifecycle of the Architecture, Engineering and Construction (AEC) project.
Recently, a large international initiative is launched to provide extensive support that will facilitate the creation,
sharing and integration for BIM through all professions in the AEC industry, while few bend their mind to
intelligent BIM data mining, which will improve the value of BIM. As the Information becoming increasingly
rich and complicated, utilization of the data is getting harder, particularly for personnel without extensive
knowledge of IFC specifications.
This paper proposes a framework utilizing Natural Language Processing (NLP) and International Framework
for Dictionaries (IFD) to address the intelligent BIM data mining problem. First, user requirements depicted with
a sentence of natural language are processed for keywords extraction by NLP. Then, keywords will map to IFC
entities (or properties) through IFD-driven mapping mechanism, providing information for data retrieval. Finally,
the analyzed results of BIM data collected by previous research and application will be represented in accordance
with its format such as tables, charts, animations or combination of them. The framework provides an intelligent
data mining and multi-aspect data representation method for users without any special training, thus enhancing
the applicable value of BIM.
Practical application results in construction management illustrates that with semantic understanding of
his/her intention in natural language, user concerned data will be automatically retrieved, analyzed and
represented in a suitable form, which is of great benefit for corporations without requiring extremely
technological users, facilitating BIM application and enhancing the value of BIM.
Zhen-Zhong Hu, Xiang-Xiang Chen, Jian-Ping Zhang, etc. A BIM-based research framework for monitoring and management during operation and maintenance period. Proceedings of 14th ICCCBE, Moscow, Russia. Jun. 2012
Research framework, Monitoring, Informatization management, BIM (Building Information Model), Operation and maintenance
With the deepening research of BIM, BIM applications have been permeated into each phase of the
building life cycles. However, there is less research and engineering application during the operation
and maintenance of property facility management, i.e., lacking of specific feasible solutions.
Combining with actual major projects, addressing to three demands, respectly the durability
monitoring and safety evaluation, the information management of mechanical and electrical
equipment, and the simulation and optimization of airport business processes, how to apply BIM in
the operation and maintenance stage were discussed from following three aspects, namely the
supporting technologies, research contents and anticipated goals, so as to realize the comprehensive
monitoring, simulation, optimization and management of BIM and other modern information
technology. Among the said three application research frameworks proposed in this paper, the BIMbased
durability monitoring in the operation and maintenance period is expected to be applied in
large-sized bridge projects, and the other two have been put into the project approval and application
in an ongoing large airport construction project, which are expected to receive great social and
economic benefits and can be further researched and deeply applied in other similar projects.
Xiang-Xiang Chen, Zhi-Huai Li, Zhen-Zhong Hu and Zhao-Pu Shen. Key technical research and platform development of bridge management system. Proceedings of 4th Asia-Pacific Young Researchers & Graduate Symposium, Hong Kong, China. Dec. 2012
Bridge Management System (BMS), WebGIS, Degradation Model, Cost Model, Platform development
Efficient evaluation and maintenance management on bridge during the operation and maintenance period have
always been key issues which bridge maintenance department and municipal bridge management department are
very concerned about. With the development of computer technology, Bridge Management System (BMS) came
into being. However, current systems have some common problems, for instance, incomplete management
systems, backward and inaccurate analysis and evaluation models, weak database functions and imperfect
embodiments of human-computer interaction, etc. In order to solve these problems and aim at researching and
developing a generalized BMS, an approach to life cycle management for bridge, and the detailed workflow are
presented in this paper, followed by establishing a scientific analysis and evaluation model of a bridge. In this
manner, the core technological solutions for BMS based on B/S structure and GIS service are discussed.
According to the above solutions, a prototype system of comprehensive management and evaluation for bridges
is developed, giving a cautiously positive outlook for the new-generation BMS.
Jian-Ping Zhang, Jia-Rui Lin, Zhen-Zhong Hu, etc. Research on IDM-based BIM process information exchange technology. Proceedings of 14th ICCCBE, Moscow, Russia. Jun. 2012
IDM, IFC, BIM, Process information exchange, MVD (Model View Definition)
IFC (Industry Foundation Classes) laid the foundation for interoperability with different applications. However, the IFC lacked the specifications for the process, such as where and when the information was created, edited, and exchanged. Determining what and when to share is difficult. Thus, IDM (Information Delivery Manual) was introduced to capture the business process while providing detailed user-defined specifications on the information that need to be exchanged at particular points within a project. However, the development of IDM needs the widespread support of participants who have high professionalism. Thus, the development of IDM lasts long, and the model view of the exchange requirement is difficult to modify, which obstructs BIM (Building Information Modeling) information sharing. In this paper, the technical framework of the BIM process information exchange was proposed based on the relationships among IDM, IFC, and IFD (International Framework for Dictionaries). According to the framework, the basic method for BIM process information exchange, which is composed of process modelling and exchange requirement extraction based on IDM, model view auto-generation depending on natural specification of exchange requirement, exchanging data by the requirement view in a linear sequence, was established. The exchange requirement model view auto-generation application was also developed. Actual practice in the 4D (4-Dimensional) construction management system of the information specified by the exchange requirement view was presented. Application results illustrate that the framework and the method for BIM process information exchange is effective, and helps in the safe, accurate, and highly efficient exchange, sharing, and integration of data.
Qiang Liu, Jian-Ping Zhang, Ding Li, Zhen-Zhong Hu. Research on building information modeling and model transformation technology based on the IFC. Proceedings of 14th ICCCBE, Moscow, Russia. Jun. 2012
Industry Foundation Classes (IFC), Building Information Modeling (BIM), Model transformation
This paper focuses on several key technologies in Building Information Modeling (BIM) to provide
the technical route and method for building a high-quality BIM. The paper discusses the direct use of
the Industry Foundation Classes (IFC) data structure in a building information modeling system to
minimize data loss theoretically. This work also addresses the efficiency problem, which is one of the
biggest obstacles in the application of IFC. In this research, the IFC information expression, including
geometry, material definitions, and construction properties, among others, is studied, and a modeling
system based on IFC is developed to build an IFC-represented model. Engineering information, such
as physical quantity, material, schedule, cost, safety, and quality, as well as extensible properties, has
also been added or edited into the previously established model. The paper presents several IFC
model transformation technologies, including model reconstruction of IFC data, solid-to-surface
model conversion, mesh simplification for surface model, and repeating unit simplification based on
mapping. Application of these technologies could improve system efficiency and IFC data
transmission efficiency to a certain extent.
Structural safety, Building information model, 4D, Construction, Safety analysis
Building Information Model (BIM) is a full-fledged digital framework that models building components and their relationships. As a subset module of BIM, a sub-BIM focuses on a certain field or objective and provides all related building information. Aiming at the unsolved problems of establishing the complete BIM at the beginning of a project, this paper presents a feasible and necessary method for the implementation of BIM applications by combining various sub-BIMs. The research took the National Stadium of 2008 Olympic Game as a case study in which an Industry Foundation Class (IFC) -based sub-BIM, 4D Structural Information Model was developed by combining three smaller sub-BIMs to support 4D structural safety analysis during construction, so that time-dependent structural analysis could be carried out precisely following the construction activities. The case study shows that the proposed method is rational and feasible, and it is an integrated and intelligent method for building lifecycle management.
LIANG Xiong, LU Ming, ZHANG Jianping, HU Zhenzhong. A case study of dynamic construction site facilities modeling in a 4D environment. Proceedings of 12th ICCCBE & 2008 INCiTE, Beijing, China. Oct. 2008
Dynamic Site Layout, Construction Sites, Construction Management, Construction Planning, 4D Construction Management
This paper presents a dynamic construction site layout modeling technique developed to follow an open architecture in a four dimensional (4D) environment. We intend to address the limitations of established two dimensional (2D) site layout planning approaches by processing information of site facilities in three dimensions (3D) and alleviate the difficulties of creating new types of facilities as experienced by existing 3D/4D-based methods. The new modeling technique enables creation and insertion of new types of fa-cilities to the site layout model, driven by the diverse nature of construction sites. In addition, the new tech-nique also seamlessly adds location and progress data in a site layout model. Its basic architecture and components, including database design, facility components and 4D environments are described. In order to demonstrate its advantages, a case study is presented on how to apply the proposed modeling method at a high-rise building site.
Zhen-Zhong Hu, Jian-Ping Zhang, Ming Lu, etc. Simulation and optimization of prefabricated steel-structure installation operations. Proceedings of 1st International Construction Specialty Conference, Calgary, Alberta, Canada. 2006
Construction Plan, Simulation, Optimization, Genetic Algorithm
This research presents a university-industry joint research endeavor in applying simulation modeling combined with genetic optimization to the prefabricated steel-structure installation operations in an ongoing stadium construction project in Beijing. The simulation platform of SDESA (simplified discrete-event simulation approach) resulting from the latest research was utilized to establish the construction process model. By simulating, analyzing and optimizing this process model, valuable and practical recommendations are provided to the contractor and the steel prefabricator, allowing them to reduce the resource utilization, improve the construction efficiency and shorten the project period.
To address the issues of constraining construction safety management caused by relative independence of architectural design, structural analysis and construction management, the research introduced the concept of building information model (BIM), and 4D construction management to construction safety analysis applications. To solve the problems of establishing the complete BIM at the beginning of a project, the paper presents a new concept of sub-BIM by focusing on specific domain or subjective, extracting kernel information. The paper also describes four sub-BIMs, namely Basic Information Model, 4D Information model, Structural Information Model and 4D Construction Safety Information Model. The research took the National Stadium as a case study that 4D Construction Safety Information Model was established to support 4D construction safety analysis. The case demonstrates that sub-BIMs are feasible and rational for reducing the workload of construction management and structure modeling, supporting the effective implementation of construction safety analysis.
The safety problem of building during construction is attached importance to both people and government due to frequently accidents. As a result, seeking after more scientific and accurate methods of safety analysis during construction has become an emergent research area. By inducting 4D-CAD and building information modeling technologies, a safety analysis model and system framework were proposed in this paper based on the summarization of current analysis methods. Through 4D information model corresponding to time-dependent connotation, the process of analysis is prominently simplified and the goal of exchange and communion of information during design period and construction period is achieved together with 4D visualized simulation.
The construction industry is one of the foundational industries in China. However, compared with some advanced countries, it is still a labor intensive industry and of low productivity. This paper raises the difficulties of science and technologies development, implementation technology and industrialization technology in building industry based on the current status of construction in China. Then experiences from advanced countries are used for reference and some countermeasures are presented.
The framework of an information management system for construction enterprise integrated with the advanced management mode and potential information technologies has been established, based on extensive field investigations and analysis for the organization system, management mode, work flow and information management status of construction enterprises. The framework can be used to guide the design and implementation of information management system for construction enterprise. This study should also provide some references to make relative policies for promoting the application of information technology in the construction industry in China.
The construction industry is one of the foundational industries in China. However, compared with some advanced countries, it is still a labor intensive industry and of low productivity. In order to meet the challenges brought by information technologies and knowledge-based economy, and promote the competition ability of China’s construction industry, it is of crucial importance to survey the current status and development trends of science and technologies in the global construction industry.
Building lifecycle management (BLM), Building information model (BIM), Collaborative design, Construction safety, Durability monitoring, Operating management, Industrial foundation classes (IFC)
在建筑业高速发展的今天，建筑业的低效率问题和浪费现象却越来越明显。为了统筹建筑生命期各个阶段所产生的海量信息和多元化应用需求，引入BIM（Building Information Model，建筑信息模型）的理念和技术，应用于BLM（Building Lifecycle Management，建筑生命期管理）具有重大的社会和经济意义。尽管近年来已经有了应用BIM技术的众多实际工程项目和案例，也取得了一些让人欣慰的成果，然而，BIM技术的发展，以及BLM的全面实现，依然任重道远，这也意味着还需要对涉及到的众多关键技术进行一项一项地深入研究和重点突破。
本研究通过引入BIM技术，面向建筑生命期的安全分析和管理，提出了基于BIM的BLM框架，并参照IFC（Industrial Foundation Classes，工业基础类）国际标准，研究了BIM的IFC描述。在此基础上，通过引入碰撞检测算法、时变结构分析、耐久性监测、离散事件模拟算法等领域的知识和最新成果，面向建筑生命期中安全分析和管理的四个典型应用，即1）BIM的建立和共享；2）面向安全性能的协同设计；3）施工过程安全分析与管理；4）运维期监测与管理，系统地研究了实现的理论、方法、技术，以及探讨了在研的一些内容与展望，并通过一些工程实例对其可行性和有效性进行了验证。
Though the construction industry is developing rapidly today, low efficiency and labor waste have become increasingly obvious. In order to co-ordinate the huge amounts of information and diverse application requirements emerged during every stage of the building lifecycle, it is of great social and economic significance to introduce the concept of Building Information Model, BIM for short, to Building Lifecycle Management, BLM for short. Although in recent years, there have been some successful BIM applications of many engineering projects with some delightful achievements, BIM technology, as well as the full realization of BLM is still long way to go, which also means that many key technologies involved need a thorough study and some major breakthroughs.
By introducing BIM technology and for safety analysis and management within building lifecycle, this study proposed a BIM-based BLM framework, as well as IFC (Industrial Foundation Classes) descriptions of several BIMs according to the IFC schema. Then based on the newly developments in collision detection algorithms, time-dependent structural analysis, durability monitoring, discrete event simulation algorithm and so on, four typical safety analysis and management applications within different stages of the building lifecycle are discussed in detail, namely 1) the establishment and sharing of BIM; 2) safety-oriented collaborative design; 3) safety analysis and management during construction; and 4) monitoring and management during operation and maintenance period. Also, all the theories, methodologies and technologies involved, as well as some on-going researches and future directions are discussed. Finally, the feasibility and effectiveness are verified by some real projects.
The results show that information generated during the building lifecycle can be unifiedly managed by the help of BIM. This provides new management ideas and tools for safety issues within building lifecycle, to solve problems of information sharing and delivering, such as information island and information fault. The meaningful and promising results may improve safety performance within building lifecycle and accelerate the informalization of construction industry, especially in the aspects of ensuring the consistency of safety information and improving the efficiency of safety information use.
Building information model (BIM), Four dimension management (4D management), Structure safety, Conflict analysis, Construction
基于上述需求，本研究综合应用建筑信息模型（Building Information Model，BIM）、4D技术、时变结构分析、过程模拟、预测评价和碰撞检测等领域的知识和最新成果，面向设计和施工阶段的信息共享和重用，描述了施工过程冲突和安全分析管理的总体需求和整体解决方案，提出了建筑子信息模型（sub-Building Information Model，sub-BIM）的概念，并建立了4D施工安全信息模型。基于此sub-BIM，着重研究了施工过程时变结构和支撑体系的动态安全分析、进度/资源/成本费用的冲突分析与管理、以及场地设施碰撞检测的相关理论和关键技术，并详细论述其实现的流程与集成方法。在此基础上，进行了应用系统的需求分析、功能设计、架构设计、数据库设计以及程序设计，采用面向对象编程方法开发了基于BIM的建筑工程4D施工管理及安全分析系统（4D-GCPSU 2009），并通过工程实例对系统的可行性和有效性进行验证，从而为施工现场提供新的安全分析手段和管理工具。
The accident rate of building industry and the numbers of accidents and deaths remain high. It is of great social and economic significance to strengthen the construction safety analysis and management. However, there has been a lack of scientific and effective management tool for a long time in this important area that involves people's lives and property. It has become an important problem demanding prompt solution to achieve the information-based integrated construction management by new theories and approaches in order to change the backward situation fundamentally.
In view of the current situation, for the purpose of information sharing and reuse between design and construction phases within building lifecycle, based on newly developments in Building Information Model (BIM), 4D technology, time-dependent structure analysis, construction simulation, collision detection and so on, the concept of sub-Building Information Model (sub-BIM) is proposed and the 4D Construction Safety Information Model is described and established according to the overall solution of analysis and management for conflict and safety problems during construction. Based on this sub-BIM, the integration of dynamic safety analysis of time-dependent structure and scaffold system, conflict analysis and management of schedule/resources/ cost, and collision detection of site facilities is studied. Theories and key technologies for the integration mechanism are detailed discussed. Then a BIM-and-4D-based analysis and management system for conflict and safety problems during construction named 4D-GCPSU 2009 is developed. By real project-applications, the feasibility and effectiveness of the system are verified to be a new tool for construction management, providing new safety analysis approaches.
The achievements of this research have indicated that through the establishment of the 4D Construction Safety Information Model by inducting BIM and 4D technology, information sharing and integrated management among three areas, i.e., architectural design, structural analysis and construction can be implemented. This also provides a feasible theory and methodology for the establishment and integrated applications of BIM. Furthermore, this study proposes a new approach for conflict and safety analysis during construction by integration of construction simulation, 4D construction management and safety analysis. The approach lays a foundation for the popularization of the complicated theories and methodologies. It also has important theoretical significance and wide application prospect in meeting the needs of safe construction, changing the backward situation and improving the safety level during construction.
the National Stadium, 4D management, Construction Optimization, Virtual Construction
本课题研究将建筑施工4D管理系统应用于国家体育场工程，采用CATIA建立钢结构网盖的精确三维模型，并将模型细分，通过转换成3ds max 的STL格式文件，再转换成DWG文件，成功导入到AutoCAD和4D-GCPSU 2005中；通过对国家体育场施工方案的深入分析和了解，结合4D-CAD技术，采用动画演示和4D显示方式实现了国家体育场施工方案可视化模拟；课题研究还将Augmented SDESA系统应用于国家体育场工程，建立了与工程实际符合的施工过程模型，对钢结构吊装过程及其资源控制进行模拟和方案比较，并通过系统优化功能的扩充，实现了施工方案的资源优化，取得了较好的成果，为国家体育场施工方制定施工方案提供了定量的参考意见。
The National Stadium is the main stadium of the 2008 Olympic Games in Beijing. The Beijing Chengjian Corporation, which is the chief contractor, is in charge of organizing and implementing the project. It is Crucial to complete the construction efficiently and high-qualitatively since The National Stadium has complex structure, large construct scale, high difficulty in construction and pressure time. To ensure that the project be under construction efficiently and with high quality, it is important to manage the project with high technology and optimize the construction method.
Our researches focus on the application of the 4D-GCPSU 2005 in the National Stadium project. We set up the exactitude 3D-Model of its steel structure in CATIA and convert the model to DWG data files, which can be read by AutoCAD and used by 4D-GCPSU 2005. By using the technology of 4D-CAD we also implement animation of virtual construction and the 4D-display. Also we set up the construction process model in SDESA. By simulating the construction process, comparing different construction methods and optimizing the construction method, we can give out valuable and quantitative ideas for construction managers. The result is satisfying.
This research combines advanced computer technology with the construction of the National Stadium to achieve the aims of reducing construction resources, improving construction efficiency and shortening the duration of the project.